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Getian Dacian Language

Dacian Language


File:Romani daci.jpg

Blue=lands conquered by the Roman Empire.
Red = area populated by Free Dacians.
Language map based on the range of Dacian toponyms.

 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia;

Spoken inRomania, Moldova, parts of Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Northern Bulgaria
Language extinctionprobably by the sixth century AD
Language familyIndo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-1None
ISO 639-2ine
ISO 639-3xdc

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages (list)
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian

Indo-European peoples
Europe: Balts · Slavs · Albanians · Italics · Celts · Germanic peoples · Greeks · Paleo-Balkans (Illyrians · Thracians · Dacians) ·

Asia: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)  · Armenians  · Indo-Iranians (Iranians · Indo-Aryans)  · Tocharians  

Language · Society · Religion
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis
Anatolia · Armenia · India · PCT
Indo-European studies

The Dacian language was spoken by the ancient inhabitants of Dacia. It belongs to the Indo-European language family.

Dacian is often considered to be a dialect of the same language as Thracian or to be a separate language from Thracian but closely related to it. (See Daco-Thracian.)

Characteristics and sources

Many characteristics of the Dacian language are disputed or unknown. No Dacian inscriptions survive, save names using the Latin alphabet. What is known about the language derives from:

  • The Roman poet Ovid claimed that he learned the Dacian language after being exiled to Tomis (today Constanţa) in Dacia. In his Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto he claimed to have composed poems in the language. If this is true, they have not been preserved.

Geographic distribution

Dacian used to be one of the major languages of South-Eastern Europe, spoken from what is now Eastern Hungary to the Black Sea shore[citation needed]. Based on archaeological findings, the origins of the Dacian culture are believed to lie in Moldavia, being identified as an evolution of the Iron Age Basarabi culture.

Sound changes from Proto-Indo-European

Dacian was a satem language.


The Bulgarian Point of View

In the 1950s the Bulgarian linguist Vladimir Georgiev published a work[2] in which he argued that the phonology of Dacian is close to that of Albanian, supporting the theory that Dacian was on the same language branch as the Albanian language, a language branch termed Daco-Moesian (or Daco-Mysian) — Moesian (or Mysian) being thought of as a transitional dialect between Dacian and Thracian.

There are cognates between Daco-Thracian and Albanian. These cognates may be evidence of a Daco-Thracian-Albanian language affinity.

The ancient Greek geographer Strabo claimed that the Getae spoke the same language as the Thracians.[3] However, Georgiev argued that Dacian and Thracian are two different languages, with two different phonetic systems, supporting this view with the evidence of placenames, which end in -dava in Dacian and Moesian, as opposed to -para in Thracian placenames.[2] (See List of Dacian cities and List of ancient Thracian cities.)

The fate of Dacian 

File:Romanian origins map.PNG

t is unclear exactly when the Dacian language became extinct, or even whether it has a living descendant. The initial Roman conquest of part of Dacia did not put an end to the language, as Free Dacian tribes such as the Carpi may have continued to speak Dacian in the area northeast of the Carpathians (in the areas of modern Moldova and Ukraine) as late as the 6th or 7th century AD.
  • Another hypothesis considers Albanian to be a Daco-Moesian dialect that split off from Dacian before 300 BC and that Dacian itself became extinct.

The argument for this early split (before 300 BC) is the following: Inherited Albanian words (e.g. Alb motër 'sister' < Late IE ma:ter 'mother') show the transformation Late IE /a:/ > Alb /o/, but all the Latin loans in Albanian having an /a:/ show Latin a: > Alb a. This indicates that the transformation PAlb /a:/ > PAlb /o/ happened and ended before the Roman arrival in the Balkans.

On the other hand, Romanian substratum words shared with Albanian show a Romanian /a/ that corresponds to an Albanian /o/ when the source of both sounds is an original Common /a:/ (mazăre / modhull < *ma:dzula 'pea', raţă / rosë < *ra:tya: 'duck'), indicating that when these words had the same Common form in Pre-Romanian and Proto-Albanian the transformation PAlb /a:/ > PAlb /o/ had not yet begun.

The correlation between these two facts indicates that the split between the Pre-Roman Dacians (those Dacians who were later Romanized) and Proto-Albanian happened before the Roman arrival in the Balkans.

Substratum of Proto-Romanian

Main article: Eastern Romance substratum

The Dacian language may form the substratum of the Proto-Romanian language, which developed from the Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkans north of the Jirecek line, which roughly divides Latin influence from Greek influence.

Whether Dacian in fact forms the substratum of Proto-Romanian is disputed (see Origin of the Romanians (The Hungarian point of view)), yet this theory does not rely on the Romanization having occurred in Dacia, as Dacian was also spoken in Moesia, and as far south as northern Dardania. About 300 words in Eastern Romance (Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, Istro-Romanian) may derive from Dacian, and many of these show a satem-reflex, as one would expect in Daco-Thracian words.

In Romanian culture

The Romanian philologist Nicolae Densuşianu argued in his book Dacia Preistorică (Prehistoric Dacia) that Latin and Dacian were the same language or mutually intelligible dialects. His work was disregarded by mainstream linguists as pseudoscience, but it was revived by the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime, which encouraged an ideology called Protochronism and stressed the important role of the Dacians in the creation of the modern Romanian people.

The first article to revive Densuşianu's theory was an unsigned article named "The Beginnings of the History of the Romanian People" published in Anale de istorie[4], a journal published by the Romanian Communist Party's "Institute of History of the Party".[5]

The article claims that the Thracian language was a pre-Romance or Latin language using a demonstration which Lucian Boia describes as "a lack of basic professionalism and a straightforward contempt for the truth". Arguments used in the article include the lack of interpreters between the Dacians and the Romans, as depicted on the bas-reliefs of Trajan's column.[5] The bibliography includes, apart from Densuşianu, the work of a French academician Louis Armand (who is in fact an engineer), who allegedly showed that "the Thraco-Dacians spoke a pre-Romance language". Similar arguments are found in Iosif Constantin Drăgan's We, the Thracians (1976).[5]

This generated a great interest on researching of history of Dacia and many (often non-rigorous) works were published, among them Ion Horaţiu Crişan's "Burebista and His Age" (1975), who concluded the need of writing a monograph on the subject of "Dacian philosophy".[5] There were voices claiming the need of reconstructing the language and of the creation of a Dacian Language department at the University of Bucharest, but such proposals failed because of the lack of the object of study.[5]

After the 1989 Romanian Revolution, this theory continued being supported by Drăgan and the New York City-based physician Napoleon Săvescu, who published a book named We are not Rome's Descendents.[6] Together, they issue the magazine Noi, Dacii ("Us Dacians") and organize a yearly "International Congress of Dacology".[7]

See also


  1.  Daicoviciu, p.27
  2. Georgiev, Raporturi..."
  3. Strabo, "Geographica" Book VII, Chapter 3, 10
  4. Anale de istorie, 4th issue (1976)
  5. Lucian Boia, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Central European University Press, 2001, p.103-105. ISBN 9639116971.
  6. Napoleon Săvescu, "Noi nu suntem urmaşii Romei"
  7.  "Ca şi cînd precedentele reuniuni n-ar fi fost de ajuns, dacologii bat cîmpii in centrul Capitalei", in Evenimentul Zilei, 22 June 2002


  • I. I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, Bucharest, Editura Ştiinţifică, 1967
  • Vladimir Georgiev (Gheorghiev), Raporturile dintre limbile dacă, tracă şi frigiană, "Studii Clasice" Journal, II, 1960, 39-58
  • Hadrian Daicoviciu, Dacii, Editura Enciclopedică Română, 1972
  • Dimiter Detschew, Die thrakischen Sprachreste, Wien 1957.

External links

 List of Dacian plant names
This is a list of plant names in Dacian, an ancient language of South Eastern Europe, from Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (abb. MM) and Pseudo-Apuleius' Herbarius (abb. Herb.). Dacian plant names are one of the primary sources left to us for studying the Dacian language. This list also includes a Bessian plant name and a Moesian plant name, neighboring Daco-Thracian tribes.

A separate list exists containing Romanian words of possible Dacian origin that form the Eastern Romance substratum.

  1. Bistort [1]
  2. Arum [2]
  1. Persicaria bistorta, also classified as Polygonum bistorta [3]
  2. Arum maculatum [4]
  1. ^ primary source for this meaning as yet unidentified
  2. ^ Herb., 14
Amalusta, Amolusta [5], AmulustaChamomileMatricaria recutita or Anthemis tinctoria^ Herb. 23; possibly related to Albanian ëmbël, ambël "sweet".[1]
*lustu appears as a proto-Celtic word for "plant" [2].
Aniarsexe, AniassexieSainfoin a.k.a. Cock's HeadOnobrychis caput galii
AprusGladwin IrisIris foetidissima
Arpopria, ArborriaClimbing IvyHedera helix
AsaColtsfootTussilago farfaraalso a Bessian plant name.
Aurumetti, AurimetellumCranesbill a.k.a. Crow's Foot, Wild Geranium ?Geranium sylvaticum or Ranunculus serdous?MM 2.175, Herb. 67
AzilaHound's TongueCynoglossumProbably a variant of Usazila (see below)
Bles, BlisPurple AmaranthAmaranthus blitum
Budalla, Budama, Budathala, BudathlaAnchusaAnchusa italica
Caropithla, Karopithla
  1. Yellow Serradella
  2. Common Polypody
  1. Ornithopus compressus
  2. Polypodium vulgare
Cercer, Cerceraphron, Kerker, KerkeraphronPimpernelAnagallis
Chodela, KhodelaGround PineLycopodium (Lycopodium clavatum or Lycopodium annotitum / Lycopodium dubium?)
Cinouboila, Cinuboila, Kinouboila, Kinuboila
  1. Wild Pumpkin
  2. White Bryony.
  3. White Grape
  1. Cucurbita foetidissima
  2. Bryonia alba
  3. Vitis
a compound of kinu "dog" and oboila "apple", akin to Lithuanian šúnobuolas "wild pumpkin", Thracian dinupula, sinupyla "id", Albanian thënukël "dogberry"[3]
Coadama, KoadamaPondweedPotamogeton zosteraefolium
Coicolida, KoikolidaNightshadeAtropa belladonnathe first element koiko means "one-eyed" or "blind", and is akin to Latin caecus "blind", Irish caoch "one-eyed", Goth haihs "one-eyed", Sanskrit kekara "squint-eyed"
Cotiata, KotiataSwitchgrassPanicum dactylumalso refers to genus Agropyron?
Courionnecum, Couriounnecum, Curiounnecum, KourionnekoumArumArum
Coustane, Croustane, Crustane, Custane, Koustane, Kroustane, Krustane, KustaneGreater celandine or Lesser celandineChelidonium majus or Ranunculus ficaria
Cycolis, KykolisPGroundcherry or AshwagandhaPhysalis sp. or Withania somnifera
Dacina, Dakina
  1. Beet
  2. False Helleborine
  1. Beta vulgaris
  2. Veratrum nigrum
the Moesian name for these plants was Mendruta (see below)
DicotellaWhite BryonyBryonia alba
Dielina, Dielleina, DiellenaHenbaneHyoscyamos niger
DiessathelWavyleaf MulleinVerbascum sinuatumfrom IE *diwes-sētlo; where the second element meant "sieve" (cf. Old Norse sáld "sieve", Welsh hidl "strainer", Lithuanian sėkla "seed", Greek ēthein "to strain", Old Church Slavonic sito)[4]
DiesemaMulleinVerbascumfrom IE *diyes eusmn. "burning sky" (cf. Latin dies "day", Greek heúein "to burn", Albanian diell "sun") and similar to German Himmelbrand "mullein", literally "burning heavens" [5].
Diodela, Duodela, Duodella, Ziodela
  1. Yarrow?
  2. Chamomile
  3. Sweet Marjoram
  1. Achillea millefolium?
  2. Matricaria recutita
  3. Origanum majorana
DracontosRosemaryRosmarinus officinalis
DokelaBugleAjuga iva
EbustroneLesser celandineRanunculus ficariaFrom Pseudo-Apuleis
Gonoleta, Gouoleta, Guoleta, GuoleteGromwellLithospermum tenuiflorumConsumed as an oral contraceptive
Hormea, HormiaAnnual ClarySalvia horminum
LaxPurslanePortulaca oleraceaUsed as a laxative
Manteia, MantiaWooly BlackberryRubus tomentosus
  1. Beet
  2. False Helleborine
  1. Beta vulgaris
  2. Veratrum nigrum
Actually, a Moesian plant name
Mizela, Mizila, Mozula, MouzulaThymeThymus
NemenepsaGround PineLycopodium
OlmaDanewortSambucus ebulus
Parithia, ParthiaDog's Tooth GrassCynodon ?
PegrinaWhite BryonyBryonia alba
PhithophthethelaMaidenhair fernAdiantum
PolpumDillAnethum graveolens
Priadela, PriadilaWhite Bryony or Black BryonyBryonia alba or Tamus communis
Probedula, Procedila [6], Propedila, Propedula, PropodilaCreeping CinquefoilPotentilla reptans^ Procedila< Prokedila, probably a scribal error for *Probedila, a graphic confusion between β/κ being rather common in Greek manuscripts. Compare to the Gaulish name for this plant, Pempedula (five-leaved).
Prodiarna, ProdiornaBlack HelleboreHelleborus niger
RathibidaItalian AsterAster amellus
  1. Anise
  2. Stinking Tutsan
  1. Pimpinella tragium
  2. Hypericum hircunum
SkiareWild TeaselDipsacus sylvestris or Dipsacus fullonum sylvestris
Skinpoax, Sipoax, SpioaxBroadleaf PlantainPlantago major
Sikupnoex, SikupnuxEryngoEryngium campestre
StirsozilaCentauryCentaurium erythraea, formerly classified as Erythraea centauriumfrom Pseudo-Apuleis
TeudilaPeppermint or Horsemint or Calamint?Mentha x piperita or Mentha sylvestris or Calamintha?
Troutrastra, Trutrastra, Tutrastra
  1. Pumpkin
  2. Colocynth
  1. Cucurbita
  2. Citrullus colocynthis
Toulbela, TulbelaCentauryCentaurium erythraea, formerly classified as Erythraea centaurium
UsazilaHound's TongueCynoglossumProbably a variant of Azila (see above)
ZenaPoison HemlockConium maculatum
ZiredRedstem WormwoodArtemisia scoparia
Zououster, Zuste, ZuusterWormwoodArtemisia arborescens or campestris


  1. ^ Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
  2. ^ Prifysgol Cymru University of Wales; Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies; English - proto-Celtic word list
  3. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian. Brill, 2000.
  4. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill, 1998.
  5. ^ Katičic', Radislav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One. Paris: Mouton, 1976: 149.

List of Romanian words of possible Dacian origin

This is a list of Romanian words believed to be of Dacian origin and thus representing the Eastern Romance substratum. In fact, it is not clear if they belonged to the Dacian language or the Thracian language (or both), as the relation between the two is uncertain, and that both Dacian and Thracian are very poorly attested. This list does not include the Dacian plant names, collected by Dioscorides and Pseudo-Apuleius.

The Sources column indicates the linguist(s) or the works who suggested including the words in the list:

  • "Hasdeu": Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae.
  • "Russu": Ion I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, published in 1967 at Editura Ştiinţifică. The words that have been identified by I. I. Russu to have cognates in Albanian are marked with (Alb.).
  • "Vraciu": Ariton Vraciu, Limba daco-geţilor, published in 1980 at Editura Facla, Timişoara.
  • "NODEX": Noul dicţionar explicativ al limbii române (The New Dictionary of the Romanian Language), Litera Internaţional Publishing House, 2002. In this dictionary substratum words are labeled cuvînt autohton (native word).
  • "Olteanu": Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal".[1]

The Notes column contains information found in various dictionaries. "Not in current use" indicates words not found in dictionaries of contemporary Romanian.

Word / NameEnglishSourcesNotes
abeş ?Hasdeu, VraciuNot in current use. Dacian: *abhesya.
AbrudAbrudHasdeuPlace name in Romania.
abursteam, vapourHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuCf. Albanian avull (steam). Dacian: *abhula. PIE: *h2ep-h3n.-lo
acăţato hang, to catchRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *accaptiāre (to catch) Current Romanian form: agăţa.
adămană VraciuNot in current use.
ademenito tempt, to lureHasdeuCf. Hungarian adomány (gift, grant).
adiato breeze gentlyRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *adiliare. Current form: adia.
aghiuţădevilHasdeuCf. Greek άγιοσ ágios (saint).
aidomaalike, identicalHasdeuAlternative etymology: from Slavic vidomŭ (visible).
alacEinkorn wheat
(Triticum monococcum)
HasdeuCf. Hungarian alakor, which, however, has foreign origin, possibly Romanian. Alternative etymology: Latin alica (spelt) Other possible origins: Albanian akuë or Albanian lakër (greenery) of Greek origin.
alăa monster that unleashes stormsHasdeuAlternative form: hală; alternative etymology: Bulgarian, Slavic (h)ala
aldea ?Hasdeu 
ameţito make/get dizzyRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *ammatteāre (to bludgeon) or *ammitĕre.
amurgtwilight, duskRussuSee murg below.
aninato hang, to hookRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *annināre (to swing) or *allevinare.
aprigfiery, hot-bloodedRussuAlternative etymology: Latin aprīcus (warm) or *apricus from aper (wild boar).
argealoom (or particular boards of a loom)Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu 
ArgeşArgeşHasdeuPlace name, river name.
aruncato throw, to castRussuAlternative etymology: Latin eruncare (to weed out).
azugă ?HasdeuNot in current use (see also Azuga, a town in the Prahova County)
baci(chief) shepherdHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuCf. Hungarian bácsi (uncle). Compare Bulgarian бачо (bacho/bacio).
baier, baierărope, belt; coin necklace; talisman; bail (handle)RussuAlternative etymology: Latin baiulus (a porter).
baligădung, manureRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian bajgë (same meaning).
baltăpool, puddleRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian baltë (mud, soil) and Serbian blato (mud).
barămarshHasdeuAlternative etymology: Serbian bara (?)
Barbă-cot"Cot"(lit: elbow) represented a unit for measuring length, equal to the length of the average fore-arm; "Barbă" = beard. "Barbă-cot" = dwarf-like fairy-tale character sporting a disproportionately long beardHasdeu 
barzăstork (Ciconia ciconia)Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu, OlteanuCf. Albanian barth, feminine bardhë (white).
bascăberetHasdeu, Russu (Alb.) 
batalwether (castrated ram)HasdeuAlternative etymology: Turkish battal (useless) from Arabic batal (to mutilate), which also gave Spanish baldar (cripple). Also Cf. Albanian batal and Bulgarian батал (useless).
dragon, monsterHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuCf. Albanian bollë (snake) and Serbian blavor (slowworm).
băgato insert, to thrustRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *bīgāre, from bis (twice) + *iuga.
bălanblond (person), white-haired (animal)HasdeuAlternative etymology: Slavic bĕlŭ (white)
beregatăthroat, larynxRussuCf. Serbian berikat (?). Alternative etymology: Latin *verucata, from *veruca.
bîrsăa piece of wood or iron that binds together the coulter, the share and mouldboard of a plough (the plough beam?)NODEX[2]Cf. Albanian vërz (plane (tool)?), Slovenian brdce (piece of wood holding a trawl), and Moravian brdce (piece of wood across the main shaft of a carriage).
boarebreezeRussuAlbanian: borë (snow); Alternative etymology: Latin boreas (the north wind).
bordei(buried or half-buried) hutHasdeu, Russu 
bortăhole, hollow, archwayHasdeuCf. Ukrainian bort.
(archaic form *bradzŭ)
fir (any tree of genus Abies)Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), OlteanuCf. Albanian bradh or bredh (same meaning).
brînduşăcrocus, primula (Crocus heuffelianus and other similar flowers)RussuCf. Bulgarian brenduška and Serbian brnduša.
brînzăcheeseHasdeu, Russu, Vraciuspawned German de:Brinsenkäse, Slavic ru:брынза[3], bryndza in Slovak and Polish[citation needed]
brîubelt, waistRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian bres or brezi
brusturebur (large-leafed plant, Lappa)Russu (Alb.) 
bucura (verb)
bucuros (adj.)
(to be) glad, to enjoyRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian zbukuroj (beautify) bukurosh (handsome).
buiestrupace (a horse gait)Russu 
bungetthick and dark forestHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuCf. Albanian bunk.
burghiudrilling bitHasdeuAlternative etymology: Turkish burgu (gimlet, corkscrew), Serbo-Croatian burgija
burlanspout, water pipeRussuCf. Turkish burgu (pipe, trumpet).
burtăbelly, stomachRussuCf. Albanian barku (same meaning).
burtucă ?HasdeuNot in current use.
burtuş ?HasdeuNot in current use.
butuclog, stumpRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *bottum (blunt and snout), Cuman butak (branch), or Turkish buduk (short-legged). Cf. Hungarian butuk.
buturălog, stumpRussuProbably a similar etymology with butuc.
buzălipRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian buzë (same meaning). Similar in Bulgarian but the meaning is shfited into cheek.
caiertuft of wool, etc. to be spunRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *caiulus.
caţălong stick ending with a hook, used by shepherdsRussuSee acăţa above. Cf. Albanian cita (weaving sticks)
căciulăbrimless hatRussu (Alb.)Albanian kësul'ë(same meaning). Similar in Bulgarian, meaning hood.
căpuşătickRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian këpushë.
căputăupper side of a foot; footwear covering itRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian këputsë; Alternative etymology: Slavic kopyto > Romanian copită (hoof), Slavic kopytĭce, Hungarian kapta (last)
cătunhamletRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian katund (village), Serbian katun (summer pasture).
cioarăcrowHasdeu, VraciuCf. Albanian sorrë (same meaning).
ciobanshepherdHasdeuCf. Turkish çoban (same meaning).
ciocbeakHasdeu, VraciuCf. Albanian çok (hammer, knuckle). Compare with the Bulgarian word човка (chovka/ciovca) with the same meaning (bill, beak).
ciocîrlieskylarkHasdeuDerived from cioc, see above.
ciomagclub, cudgelHasdeuCf. Turkish çomak (same meaning), Cf. Albanian çomage (big hammer)
cîrlansheep or goat weanling; colt, foalRussu 
cîrlighookRussuCf. Bulgarian кърлик kărlik (?).
codruwide old forestHasdeu, VraciuAlternative etymology: Latin *quodrum (from quadrum (a square), Cf. Albanian koder (hill)
copactreeRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian kopaçe (big piece of wood).
copilchildRussuCf. Albanian kopil (bastard), Serbian and Bulgarian kopile (bastard).
creţcurly; curly hairedRussu 
cruţato pardon, to spareRussu (Alb.) 
cujbăY-shaped piece of wood used to hold the kettle over the fireHasdeu 
culbecsnailHasdeuVariant: cubelc.
curmato tighten (a rope); to cut, stopRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian kurmue.
curpănvine, twining stemRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian kurpen (?).
cursătrap, snareRussu (Alb.), OlteanuCf. Albanian kurth (same meaning).
custurăblade, knife edge, knifeRussuPossible etymology: Romanian cuţit (knife) + the suffix tură
darari ?RussuNot in current use.
daşramRussu (Alb.)Albanian: dash (same meaning).
dărîmato demolish, to knock downRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian: dermoj (to hurt someone) Alternative etymology: Latin *deramare.
deh ?HasdeuNot in current use.
dereticato tidy upRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *deradicare (to root out).
descăţato unhookRussudes-căţa
descurcato disentangleRussuAntonym of încurca, see below.
desghinato divide, to separateRussucurrent: dezbina
dezbărato break from a bad habit, to ridRussu 
dezgauc ?Hasdeu 
doinăRomanian lyrical folk songHasdeu, VraciuCf. Latvian and Lithuanian daina (song, traditional form of Baltic music and poetry).
don ?Hasdeu 
dopcork, plugRussuCf. Saxon dop.
droaiecrowd, large number (of people or animals)RussuCf. Albanian droe or droje (shyness from the crowd[clarification needed]).
dulăumastiffHasdeu, VraciuAlternative etymology: Polish dolow or dolaw.
fărîmăcrumb, fragmentRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian thërrime (same meaning).
gardfenceRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gardh (same meaning) and old Slavic gradŭ.
gataready, doneRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gati (same meaning).
gălbeazăfascioliasisRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gëlbazë, këlbazë (phlegm).
genuneabyssHasdeu, RussuAlternative etymology: Latin *gyro.
ghearăclaw, talonRussuAlternative etymology: 1. Latin *ungularis (claw, talon) → *înghiareîn ghiare (in [its] claws); 2. Romanian unghioară (small fingernail) → înghiară. Cf. Albanian dorë (arm, clutches, fist, flipper, hand, handful, mitt, palm, quality), darë (nippers, pincers, pinchers), çjerr (clapperclaw, lacerate, scratch, tear up), grric or gervish (scratch)
ghesa poke, a goadRussu 
ghimpethornRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gjëmp, gjemb (same meaning).
ghiobcheese barrelHasdeuCf. Hungarian döböny (?).
ghionoaiewoodpeckerRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gjon (night bird).
ghionta nudge, a pokeRussu 
ghiujold, decrepit manHasdeu, VraciuCf. Albanian gjysh (grandfather).
gîdel ?Hasdeu 
gordinRomanian kind of grapes used in winemakingHasdeu 
gorunSessile oak (Quercus petraea)RussuAlternative etymology: Bulgarian горун gorun (same meaning).
grapăharrowRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian grep, gërepë (fishing rod, [its] hook).
gresiesandstone, whetstoneRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gëresë (?).
groapăhole, pitRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gropë (same meaning).
gruihilltop, hillockRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *grunnium
grumazneckRussu (Alb.), NODEXCf. Albanian gurmaz or gërmaz (throat).
grunza lump of stiff but brittle substance, such as a block of saltRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian grundë (?).
gudurato fawnRussuCf. Albanian gudulis (to tickle); cf. Romanian gâdila (to tickle), cf. Bulgarian гъделичкам (gădelichkam), гъдел ме е (gădel me e) (to tickle)[4]
guşăa bird's crop; double chin, goiterRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian gushë (same meaning, plus Adam's apple), Serbian guša (throat), Bulgarian. Alternative etymology: Latin *geusiae.
hojmarepeatedly, continuouslyHasdeu, VraciuAlternative etymology: Ukrainian hožma.
iazmăugly and evil apparition, ghostHasdeu 
ielemythological characters (white-clad beautiful girls, bewitching men with their song and dance)HasdeuCf. Serbian vile (nymphs), Slavic mythology. Alternative etymology: from Romanian ele (feminine form of they).
încurcato entangle, to mix upRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *incolicare (from colus = distaff).
înghinato assemble, to put togetherRussuCf. Romanian îmbina.
îngurzito wrinkle the edge of a fabric or the sole of a shoe with a threadRussu 
înseilato stitch, to sew temporarilyRussuCurrently preferred form: însăila; alternative etymology: Turkish say (saw or a delicate kind of serge, or woolen cloth)[5]. Cf. Serbian šiti (to sew)
întremato recover after illness or fatigueRussu 
jilţ, jielţtall-backed (arm)chairHasdeu, VraciuEtymology given for current form jeţ: German Sitz.
leagăncradle, swingRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *liginare from ligare (to tie/bind).
lepădato drop; to take off (clothes)RussuAlternative etymology: Latin lapidare (to throw stones). Cf. Serbian pada, opada (to drop, to fall).
lespedestone slabRussu 
leşinato faintRussuFrom Serbian lešina (carcass)
malshoreHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuCf. Albanian mal (mountain).
maldaca small load (of wood, hay, etc.)HasdeuAlternative etymology: Greek mandakis.
mazărepea (Pisum sativum)Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu, OlteanuCf. Albanian modhë and modhullë.
măceşsweetbrier (Rosa eglanteria)Russu 
mădărito pamper, to spoil (a child)Russu 
măgurăhill, knollRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian magulë (same meaning).
mălaimillet flourHasdeuAfter millet was largely replaced by corn, the word changed its meaning into corn flour.
mămăligăcornmeal mush (mămăligă)HasdeuAlbanian mëmeligë (same meaning)
mărcat ?RussuNot in current use.
măturăbroomRussu (Alb.)Serbian metla (broom)
melcsnailHasdeu, Russu, Vraciu 
mirebridegroomHasdeu, Russu, VraciuCf. Albanian mirë (good).
mistreţwild boarRussuAlbanian: mistrec (captious kid)[citation needed]. Alternative etymology: Latin *mixticius.
mişcato move, to stirRussu 
mînzfoal, coltRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian mëz (same meaning). It is agreed that the Thracian inscription ΜΕΖΗΝΑΙ (mezēnai, in Greek alphabet) on the Duvanli gold ring means horseman. The PIE root *mend(i)- is thought to mean horse.
mormanpile, heapRussu 
mosoclarge shepherd dogHasdeu 
moşold manRussu (Alb.)Probably a backformation from moaşă (midwife); cf. Albanian moshë (age).
moţtuft, crestHasdeu 
mugurebudRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian mugull (gemma).
murgdark brown (animal, horse)Russu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian murg (monk?).
năpîrcălimbless lizard (Anguis fragilis); viperRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian nepërkë, nëpërkë (viper).
năsărîmbăprank, mischiefHasdeu 
niţela littleRussu 
noianmultitude, heapRussu 
ortomanrich (of a shepherd); handsome (of an outlaw); quick (of a horse)Hasdeu 
păstaiepod, capsule, hullRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian pistaë, bishtajë (beans).
păstrato keepRussuAlternative etymology: Bulgarian pastrja (?).
pînzăcloth, linen, fabricRussu 
pîrîubrook, creekRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian përrua (creek, stream); also might be related to Romanian rîu (river, stream) from Latin rivus (stream).
pruncsmall childRussuAlternative etymology: Latin *puerunculus (small child).
purureaalways, everRussu (Alb.)Alternative etymology: Latin purus (pure, also absolute).
raţăduckHasdeu, VraciuCf. Albanian rosë (same meaning) and Serbian raca (?).
ravacany of several kinds of wine or mustHasdeuAlternative etymology: Turkish ravak (?).
răbdato bide, bear, endureRussu 
reazemsupport, backing, propRussu 
ridicato raise, liftRussuAlternative etymology: Latin eradicare (to uproot).
rîmfă ?HasdeuNot in current use.
rînzăgizzard; any of several stomach diseasesHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuCf. Albanian rrëndës (rennet).
(today searbăd)
insipidRussu (Alb.), OlteanuCf. Albanian tharbët (?). Alternative etymology: Latin exalbidus (white).
scăpărato strike a flintstone (to start a fire)Russu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian sqepar (small axe for cutting meat)
scrumashesRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian shkrum, shkrumb (same meaning)[citation needed].
sculato get up, to wakeRussu (Alb.)Albanian shkul (uproot) Alternative etymology: *excubulare (to get up, wake).
scurmato scrape or dig (with snout, claws, beak, tools)RussuAlternative etymology: *excorrimare (?).
sîmburepit (fruit kernel)Russu (Alb.), NODEX, OlteanuCf. Albanian sumbull or thumbull (?).
spînzhelleboreRussu (Alb.)Alternative etymology: Slavic spreji (?).
stăpînmaster, ownerHasdeu, VraciuAlternative etymology: Slavic stopanŭ (same meaning).
strănutsneezeRussuAlternative etymology: Latin sternutare (to sneeze).
stejaroakHasdeu, VraciuAlternative etymology: Bulgarian стежер (stejer) (?).
steregieicicle-shaped soot concretion in chimneysRussu 
sterpsterile, infertileRussu (Alb.)Albanian: shterp (same meaning).
stînăsheep foldHasdeu, Vraciu, NODEX 
străghiatăstormRussuCf. Albanian shtrëngatë (same meaning).
strepedelarva living in foodstuff (Piophila casei)Russu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian shtrep (?).
struguregrapeRussu, NODEX 
strungăplace for milking sheep; narrow passage, canyonRussu (Alb.), NODEXCf. Albanian shtrungë (?).
sugrumato strangle, to burkeRussuFrom sub (under) and grumaz (throat, see above).
suguşato strangle, to burkeRussuFrom sub (under) and guşă (goiter, see above).
şalehipsRussu (Alb.)Cf Albanian shale (thigh), Alternative etymology: Latin sella (seat).
şirăspineHasdeu, Russu
şopîrlălizardHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu
şoricpig skinRussu
şuthornlessRussu (Alb.)Albanian: shyt (same meaning)
traistăbagHasdeuAlbanian trastë, trajstë (same meaning), cf. Romanian synonym straiţă and Albanian strajcë
tulei(young) whiskersHasdeu
ţaphe-goatRussu (Alb.)Albanian: cjap (ibex, billy-goat)
ţarcpen, fold (fenced enclosure for animals)Russu (Alb.), OlteanuCf. Albanian cark or thark (?).
ţăruşpole, pale, picketRussu
(today ţumburuş)
a small, usually round, protrusion on a surface, nubOlteanuCf. Albanian thumbullë (?) and cf. Romanian sâmbure.
ţurcătraditional Romanian gameHasdeu
(a se/ a) uitarespectively: to look, to forgetRussuAltern. etym. Latin *oblitare (to forget).
undreasewing needleRussucurrent form: andrea
urcioreyesoreRussuAltern. etym. hordeolus (eyesore).
urdăcottage cheeseHasdeu, Russu, Vraciu
urdina.RussuAltern. etym. Latin ordinare (to set in order).
urdoareGelatinous ocular secretionRussuAltern. etym. Latin *horridor (rough, horrible).
vatrăhearth, home, fireplaceHasdeu, Russu (Alb).Albanian vatre (fireplace) (Vraciu), Serbian vatra (fire)
vătămato hurt, to injureRussuAltern. etym. Latin victimare (to sacrifice).
vătuione year old kid (goat & doe); hareRussu (Alb.)Latin vitellus (a little calf).
(archaic form viedzure)
badgerRussu (Alb.), OlteanuCf. Albanian vjedhullë (the thief, from the verb vjeth, to steal).
zarăbuttermilkRussuAlbanian dhallë (same meaning), cf. Romanian zăr, zer below
(today zer)
wheyRussu, OlteanuCf. Albanian dhallë (sour milk, diluted yogurt).
zburdajump around, prance, frolicRussu
zestrewedding gift, or wealthRussu.Similar to the Bulgarian word зестра (zestra).
zgardăcollarRussu (Alb.)Cf. Albanian shkardhë
zgîriascratchRussu (Alb.?)Altern. etym. Latin *scaberare < scaber (itchy)
zgîrmascratch (searching for something)Russucf. Romanian scurma above
zîmbru, zâmbrua coniferous tree, Pinus cembraHasdeu, Vraciu(zimbru is a different word, meaning bufalo, i.e., Bison bonasus)
zîrnă, zârnăblack nightshade (Solanum nigrum)HasdeuAltern. etym. Old Slavic zrŭno


  • (Romanian) Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae, 1887-1895
  • (Romanian) Ion. I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, Editura Ştiinţifică, Bucureşti, 1967
  • (Romanian) Ion. I. Russu, Elemente autohtone în limba română, Editura Academiei RSR, Bucureşti, 1970
  • (Romanian) Ion. I. Russu, Etnogeneza românilor, Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1981
  • (Romanian) Ariton Vraciu, Limba daco-geţilor, Editura Facla, Timişoara, 1980
  • (Romanian) Alexandru Ciorănescu, Dicţionarul etimologic român, Universidad de la Laguna, Tenerife, 1958-1966 (in part available online at DEX online)
  • (Romanian) George Pruteanu, "Limba traco-dacilor", transcript of a TV show broadcast March 25 and 26, 1996, on PRO TV; the transcript is followed by a "List of words considered by specialists as most probably belonging to the Dacian language".
  • (Romanian) DEX online: a collection of Romanian dictionaries
  • Albanian <-> English Dictionary


  1. ^ (English) (Romanian) Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal"
  2. ^ Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române, Entry for bîrsă
  3. ^ Şăineanu, Lazăr (1896) Dicţionar universal al limbii române
  4. ^[not in citation given]
  5. ^ (online Turkish-English dictionary), Entry for say

 See also



Sanscrita, Geto-Daca, Romana 

This site has good documentary information, but we can not agree or condone the bad language and invectives spread all over the text.

Un mic studiu comparativ între limbile sanscrită -la stînga semnului egal, limba română - la dreapta semnului egal – iar între paranteze sînt puse explicaţiile privind originea cuvintelor după DEX. ap, apa = apă(lat. aqua), apasabda = apăsat(lat. appensare), akasa*: cer = acasă: loc de baştină, patrie. Arienii ca şi geţii se considerau neam scoborîtor din cer(lat. casa), acaşa = acasă(a + lat. casa), acu = acu(eccum modo), adesa = adesa(a + lat. densus), anuma = anume(a + lat nume), ariyanam*: arienii = Aryanam: Ţara Zeilor la avestici, ţinut din nordul Iranului,  aşa = aşa(lat. eccum), balimuca = balamuc(din nume propriu Mamaluc), balaha = baltă(sl. blato),  banda = bandă(fr. bande), banica = baniţă(bg. banica), basma = basm(sl. basni), ban = bănie(maghiar sau sîrbo-croat ban), balacsa = bălaie(sl. bălu), bho*: formă de adresare unor indivizi inferiori sau egali = bă: tu(et. necunoscută), bhoga*: bogăţie = bogat: cu avere(sl. bogatu), bhikku*: călugăr cerşetor = bicu: tată(lipseşte din DEX), bhuh*: a devenit pământ, a murit = buh(et. necunoscută), bhuhav*: a devenit aer = puhav(sanscrit bhuhav), Bihar*: regiune în nordul Indiei unde s-au stabilit neamurile aryas = Bihar: regiune administrativă în vestul României, estul Ungariei şi munţi în Apuseni.kala*: negru = kala: pivniţă pentru cereale, groapă în emegi(fr. cale), camaşa = camaşa(lat. camisia), camera = cameră(fr. camera), cana = cana(bg. cana. Dar bulgarii au venit aici în secolul Vll, deci românii pînă să-i înveţe aceşti migratori, beau apa ca dobitoacele direct din baltă sau izvor), capala = cap(lat. caput; pînă să vină romanii eram fără cap aşa cum sînt lingviştii care au scris aceste neghiobii), carsu = car(lat. carrus), csha = casa(lat. casa), cşu = caş(lat. caseus), cazna = caznă(sl. kazni), carca = cîrcă(sîrbo-croatul krke), cita = ceată(sl. ceta), ciata = ceaţă(lat. caecia), cag = chiag(lat clagum), cîmitra = cimitir(neogreacă kimitirion), carvara = curvar(sl. kuruvari), cit*: a gîndi = citi(lat. citare), Krişna*: divinitate vedică foarte veche = crisma/crijma: învelitoarea de la botez a noului născut cu simboluri religioase pe ea(ukr. krijmo). ksatriya*: aristocraţia militară a neamurilor aryas din rîndul cărora a provenit atît Buddha cît şi contemporanul său Mahavira = şatra: clan la geţi(bg. şatra),dadaca = dădăci(neogreacă dada), darîmi = dărîma(lat. deramare) duciaba = degeaba(tr. caba; rău ne-aţi pocit limba criminalilor), danda*: pedeapsă pentru o faptă rea dată cu bastonul = dandana: necaz, bucluc, tărăboi(tc. tantana), denta = dinte(lat dens), dwar = dor(lat. populară dolus. Am zis eu că atunci cînd nu au cum s-o mai scoată pe mînecă o trag pe această făcătură neauzită şi neştiută de nimeni), dru = drum(sl. drumu), dabba = dubă: temniţă; daba la geţi era cetatea unde se ţineau judecăţile(et. necunoscută), druh = duh(sl. duhu), duvas = duios(lat. doliosus), dukha*: durere = ducă: plecare, moarte(lat. ducere), dulman = duşman(tr. düşman), dur = dur(lat. durus), dura = dura(lat. dolare), fala = fală(sl.  hvala), vrate = frate(lat. frater), gaura = gaură(lat. avula), gatejas = găteje(sl. gati), ganaca = genunchi (lat. genuclum), gingina = gingie(lat gingiva), gora = gură(lat. gula), gutto*: lege sau doctrină religioasă = gotă: zi de post(nu este în DEX),haia = hai: cuvînt cu care se îndeamnă caii la drum(et. necunoscută), han = han(tr.  han), hotu = hotar(maghiarul hotar), cirana = hrana(sl. hrana), ecata = iacătă(et. necunoscută), jadu = iad(sl. iadu), Yama*: zeul morţii = iama: a distruge(tc, yama), yuga: vîrstă = Iuga(nu este în DEX), iş = ieşi(lat. exire), ianma = inima(lat. anima), iub = iub(sl. liubiti), aderat = îndărăt(lat. inderetro), angiras = înger(lat. angelus), antarita = întări(et necunoscută), invati = învăţa(lat. invitiare), jwala = jale(sl. jali), jagdi = jigodie(maghiarul zsigora), yuga = jug(lat. jugum), jurya = jura(lat. jurare), lab = labă(maghiarul lab), laţua = laţe(et. necunoscută), lamba = limba(lat. lingua), lip*: mizerie, a unge, a mînji = lip: jeg, mizerie(ukr. lep), loca = loc(lat. locus), lup = lup(lat. lupus), lupta = lupta(lat. luctare), mahal*: mare = mahal: mare şi greu(lipseşte din DEX), man*: a gîndi = mana: rod, frupt, belşug(sl. mana), mata*: mamă = mata: formulă de politeţe(et. necunoscută), mardala = mardeală(ţigănescul mardo), mazara = mazăre(albanezul modhullë), meduva = măduvă(lat. medulla), magarc = măgar(bg. magare), mreţ = măreţ(lat. mas), mandra = mîndru(sl. mondru), mauna*: legămîntul tăcerii = mau: glas, vigoare, a lua maul – a reduce la tăcere(et. necunoscută), min*: a străluci = meni: a vrăji(sl. meniti), mîndza = mînz(albanezul mës), mladihta = mlădiţă(sl. mladu), mosur = mosor(tr. masura), muherea = muiere(lat. mulier), musti = must(lat. mustum), mustaca = mustaţă(lat. mustacea care înseamnă prăjitură), mutu = mut(lat. mutus), murta = mutra(neogreacă mutra), naiba = naiba(et. necunoscută), nas = nas(lat. nasus), namata = nămete(bg. namet), narabu = nărav(bg. nărav), natha*: stăpîna = nata: femeie adultă(lat. natus), niroda = nărod(bg. neroda), napat = nepot(lat. nepos), navasti = nevastă(sl nevesta), nacta = nagta,noapte(lat. noctis), nîra = nor(lat. nubilum), nama = nama,nume(lat. nomen), avi = oaie(lat. ovis), obositi = obosi(bg. oboseia), abadda = obadă(sl. obedu), acara = ocară(sl. ocariati), oka*: loc de şedere = oca: unitate de măsură din vechime(tc. okka), onam*: a curba, a îndrepta = onanii: om urît, pocitanie, arătare(et. necunoscută), odaia = odaie(bg. odaia), odor = odor(sanscritul odor), om = om(lat. homo), omlet = omletă(fr. omelette), opariti = opări(bg. oparia), upanaha = opinca(bg. opinka, adică ce purtau geţii de pe columna lui Traian nu erau opinci?), ortac = ortac(sanscrita ortac), ostaviti = ostoi(sl. ustoiati), aştravi = otrăvi(sl. otraviti), pakati*: fapte necugetate, fapte sau gînduri rele = pacatui: a face păcate, a greşi(lat. peccatum), pala = pală,paloş(tr. pala), pandur = pandur(maghiarul pandur), paperuda = paparudă(bg. peperuda), para = par(lat. palus), paradina = paragina, paradit(et. necunoscută), partac = partic,parte(lat. pars), pacata = păcat(lat. peccatum), pacala = păcală(et. necunoscută), palita = pălit(sl. paliti), paţîmi = păţi(lat. pateo), piya*: persoană îndrăgită = pio: iubitor de Dumnezeu(nu este în DEX), pîca = pace(lat. pacis), pingala*: în budism este unul dintre canalele energetice situat pe coloana vertebrală = pingală: imagine, pictură, a se găti(cuvîntul nu există în DEX). pita*: tată = pita: pîine, mijloace de existenţă, pitar – brutar(bg. pita), piti*: refugiu, adăpost = piti: a ascunde, a dosi(sl. pitiku), ipangea = pingea(tr. penşe), pisa = pisa(lat. pinsare), pluta = plută(bg. pluta), pama = poamă(lat. poma), pad = pod(sl. podu), povamîna = pomană(sl. pomenu), pradaţi = prăda(lat. praedare), pras = praz(bg. praz), Prajapati*: focul casei sau focul părinţilor ori a strămoşilor = praji(sl. prajiti) + pati(lat. pati), parihana: cădere, nenorocire, degenerare = prihană: necinste, păcat(ukr. pryhana), prapîde = prăpădi(bg.propadam), prasara = presăra(et. necunoscută), priatama = prieten(sl. priiateli), prîns = prînz(lat. prandium), Radha*: păstoriţă din Veda = Rada(et. necunoscută), rasa*: dans asemănător cu hora, închinat lui Krişna = rasa: de soi, bun(fr. race), rai = rai(sl. rai), ram = ram(lat. ramus), ravana = ravăn(sl. ravinu), racita = răci(lat. recens), rabos = răboj(bg. raboş), ră = ră(lat. reus), risipati = risipi(bg. rasipia), rabi = robi(sl. robu), rud = rudă(bg. roda), rage = ragea,rugă(tr. rica), ramana = rumîn(lat. romanus), rupa = rupe(lat. rumpere), sac = sac(lat. saccus), salbî = salba(lat. subalba), sara = sare(lat. salis), saddha*: credinţă, virtute = sadea: curat, pur(tc. sade), sadhu*: om sfînt = sade: butaşi de viţă-de-vie, răsad(sl. sadu), sagga*: plin de bucurie = şagă: glumă(bg. şega), samma*: observaţia sau judecata corectă = samă: recenzare pentru impunere (maghiarul szam), samana*: ascet care a învins dorinţele prin practici austere = samana: a pune sămînţa în ogor(lat. seminare), soma*: băutura care aduce nemurirea = samă: judecată, moarte(maghiarul szam) swah*: a devenit cer = suav(fr. suave), sâman*: denumirea jertfei adusă zeilor sau făcută pentru sine = samăn: asemănător(lipseşte din DEX), Santo*: om bun sau de valoare, vine din verbul a fi şi desemnează pe omul care este cu adevărat Buddha şi arhant. Strălucirea lor divină vine din aura pe care o au în jurul capului = Sento/Sinto: Creatorul sau Dumenzeu în religia geţilor(lat. sanctus), sarmani*: călugări care trăiesc cu foarte puţin = sarmani: lipsiţi de surse de existenţă, necăjiţi(bg. siromah), Soma*: zeul lunii unde se duc sufletele morţilor = somna: a dormi(nu este în DEX), sara*: miezul sau esenţa lucrurilor = sara: perioadă de zi, în antichitate ziua începea dimineaţa(lat. sera), sthavira*: ferm, stabil = stavăr: statornicie, fermitate (nu este în DEX), sukha*: fericire = sucă: poftă, ambiţie(nu este în DEX),  samana = semăna(lat. similare), saptanahan = saptamîna(lat. septimana), sar = sări(lat. salire), sacîtura = secătură(lat. siccare), sacura = secure(lat. securis), asfant = sfînt(lat. sanctus), smarana = smerenie(sl. sumeriienie), swar,sura = sor,soare(lat. sol), swîrta = soartă(lat. sors), spuz = spumă,spuză(lat. spudia), stîna = stîna(et. necunoscut[), stapana = stăpîn(et. necunoscută), strig = striga(lat. strigare), struguhuri = struguri(et. necunoscută), stupa = stup(lat.  stypus), sulica = suliţă(sl. sulica), sumanas = suman,sucman(bg. sucmanu), supa = supa(fr. souper), surata = surată(lat. soror), surpa = surpa(lat. subrupare), sant = sunt(lat. sunt), sag = şag(bg. şega), sîeua = şeaua(lat. sella), sir = şir(et. necunoscută), şira = şiră(lat. sira), şabda = şoaptă(bg. septia), suamunita = şoimăniţă(maghiarul solyom), şuba = şubă (maghiarul suba), şuşana = şuşanea(tr. şişane), taj*: durere = tînj: durere, suferinţă(sl. tonziti), tapa*: flagelare, suferinţă = tapă: tăietură sub formă de pană, făcută în trunchiul unui copac(et. necunoscută), tar = tare(lat. talem), tai = tăia(lat. taliare), tavur = taur(lat. taurus), tarapania = tarapana(tr. tarabhane), taua = tău(maghiarul to), tuaca = teacă(lat. theea), temei = temei(sl. temeli), titthiya*: clevetitori, conspiratori = titii: a şopti(nu este în DEX), tîrta = tîrtiţă(bg. tărtica), tobă = tobă(maghiarul dob), trgovanie = tîrgui(sl. trugovati), ticva = tigvă(bg. ticva), tabar = topor(sl. toporu), trasnai = trăsnăi(sl. tresnonti), trăsati = tresări(fr. tressaillir), tripitaka*: trei coşuri = tri(lat. tres) + pitaka. coşul disciplinei pentru călugări, coşul doctrinelor filozofice, metafizice şi religioase, pitacă: act oficial, poruncă scrisă, scrisoare(sl. pitaku), tulpinia = tulpină(bg. tulpina), tara = ţară(lat. terra), tarc = ţarcă(maghiarul szarka), ţinta = ţintaş(sl. centa), dumbra = umbra(lat. umbra), valîcica = ulcică(lat. ollicella), udaca = uda(lat. udare), udhar = uger(lat. uber), urda = urdă(et. necunoscută), ura = ură(lat. horrire), urdu = urgie(lat. orgia), urias = uriaş(maghiarul orias), urs = urs(lat. ursus), usc = usca(lat. exsucare), vadava = văduva(lat. viduus), vadîmi = vatama(lat. victimaare), vale = vale(lat. vallis), vama = vama(maghiarul vam), vatra = vatră(albanezul vatrë), vepas = văpaie(albanezul vapë), varasati = vărsaţi(lat. versare), vartena = vîrtej(bg. vărtej), vanada = vînat(lat. venare), vîrbu = vîrf(sl. vruhu), varîmi = vîrî(sl. vreti), vîrta = vîrtos(lat. virtus), dzambaiîmi = zîmbi(sl. zonbi), soma = zeamă(lat. zema), sares = zer(et. necunoscută), dziua = ziua(lat. dies), dzurba = zurbă(tr. zorba).




Sorin Olteanu's Thraco-Daco-Moesian Languages Project (TDML)

Sorin Olteanu's Thraco-Daco-Moesian Languages Project (TDML)

Site dedicat cercetării ştiinţifice a antichităţilor şi vechilor limbi balcanice 

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The TDM Languages section:
  Thesaurus Relictorum Linguarum Thraco-Dacicarum (TRLTD)
    Principles & Methods
    Motivation & Historic
    Thesaurus Relictorum Linguarum Thraco-Dacicarum (TRLTD)
      A-Alm Textus     Latinus 56 kb
      Abro-, Ebry-
      Axiopolis (Rasova, Cernavodă)
      Callatis (1.1: Atestările în izv. literare)
      Carsium (Hârşova)
      Decebalus-.Inscripţia Decebalus per Scorilo)
      Dromichaites Răspuns la "recenzia" d-rei Peţan la ciorna acestui articol
      Scoris, Scorilo şi familia. Inscripţia Decebalus per Scorilo
      Zalmoxis/Zamolxis [Atestările]
      -zenis [First part. The Attestations]
  Linguae Thraco-Daco-Moesorum (LTDM)
    Principles & Methods
    Historic & Specifics
    Lexic & Etymology

Palatala tracă("Spiranta iraţională")

The Thracian Palatal("The Irrational spirant ")English Text

      The Metathesis of -y- English Text
    Morphology & Syntax

Principalele arii lingvistice trace după formantul autohton cu sensul "aşezare, cetate"

    TDM Lexicon
The Sources section
  Principles & Methods
  Direct SourcesEnglish Text
    Epigraphical Sources
      Principles & Methods
      Corpus Inscriptionum ad Thraco-Dacos Pertinentium

KAGA: an Important Dacian Word English     Abstract

KAGA: un important cuvânt dacic-37 kb


Notă despre incripţia de pe inelul de la Ezerovo

        Note sur IGLR 189(inscr. de Valerius Onesimus; "Legionis VII He(r)culie")
        Note sur IGLR 191 ('Pro caritate<m>...')
        Notă despre IGLR 241 (gemma abraxea)
        Note about a double-edited inscription in Mihailov's IGB
  Indirect Sources (Manuscripts)
    Main Ancient Authors
      Ancient Authors-Index and Biographical Notes
      Procopius Caesariensis (text and comments)
      Strabon (books 6-14)
      Ptolemaeus (balkanic provinces; greek & romanian; some maps)
      Plinius Maior
      Tabula Peutingeriana
      Geographus Ravennas
      Itinerarium Pictum Annotatum (archetypus Tabulae Peutingerianae et Anonymi Ravennatis)
      Itinerarium Burdigalense (Hierosolymitanum)
      Itinerarium Antonini
      Dioscurides et Pseudo-Apuleius
      Hieroclis Synecdemus
    Minor Ancient Authors
    Other Sources
      Trajan's Column (description and images) 

The terms Centum Group and Satem Group come from the words for the number "one hundred" in a traditional representative language of each group: Latin centum and Avestan satəm. The initial consonant in these two examples comes from the Indo-European palatal consonant, *ḱ, which became in the first case a simple velar, and in the second a sibilant. The Romanian language has a Dacian substratum and the Romanian word for one hundred is "o suta"!

Many people of the ancient world performed rituals concerning the transformation of someone into wild animals including Native Americans. Nonetheless it is true that there could be a link between Cimbri bear warriors and the Romanian tradition consisting in men dressing as bears. Romanians have preserved many Dacian elements and we must be proud of our heritage!

Herodotus thought the Cimmerians and the Thracians closely related, writing that both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced about 700 BC, by invaders from further east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated west and south into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture. The Tauri, the original inhabitants of Crimea, are sometimes identified as a people related to the Thracians.

Thracians inhabited parts of the ancient provinces: Thrace, Moesia, Macedonia, Dacia, Scythia Minor, Sarmatia, Bithynia, Mysia, Pannonia, and other regions on the Balkans and Anatolia. This area extends over most of the Balkans region, and the Getae north of the Danube as far as beyond the Bug.

Premodern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry.

The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry) and Cwmry (for Cumbria), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th century celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists to derive from the Brythonic word combrogos and Proto-Brythonic kom-brogos, meaning "compatriots", and is thus related to its sister language Breton's keñvroad, keñvroiz "compatriot".

The Takla Makan Mummies of China are of Caucasoid origin. These 3,000-year-old people celebrated fertility in Western China, at reproductive fertility rite ceremony sites, where they drew figures virtually identical to 4,000-year-old ones found in Bulgaria and Ukraine. The Horse was first domesticated on the lands which were part of the Thracian home range, the Ukrainian Steppes. Man domesticated horses here between 4500 and 2500 BC. The fierce Cimmerians also originated on these lands. Most likely they where the first ever nomads. The origin of the Cimmerians is obscure. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Thracian or as Iranian, or at least to have had an Iranian ruling class. They probably lived in the area north of the Black Sea.

Cimmerians where responsible for the destruction of the Armenian - Urartu kingdom and the Thracian - Phrygian one. The Cimmerian’s culture influenced the Celts, the Thracians, and the Scythians who defeated and assimilated the Cimmerians in a 30 year war around the 7th or 8th centuries BC.

The Sarmatians where the descendents of the Cimmerians and had their revenge over the Scythians. A large part of the Sarmatians migrated westwards and established near Thracians! In many cases Thracians and Sarmatians allied against common enemies.

Herodotus was probably right about the common origin of Thracians and Cimmerians (Sarmatians) but he was most certainly wrong about the period they decided to migrate in opposite directions! That happened much earlier!

Of course there exists the possibility of more then one migrations...

There are some historians that sustain the Thracian origin of the Pelasgians, Etruscans and Iberians based on the Albanian language related to ancient Thracian and Illyrian, on the legend of Sea People and on the migration of Lydians in Italy. The Albanian language was used to decipher ancient writings found in Lemnos and Imbros islands, Egypt, Italy and Spain.

Some say that Minoans and Argolids where Pelasgians and that the ancient Philistines, Etruscans and Iberians were descendents of the Sea People of Thracian and Semitic origins...

Thracians influenced many cultures including Macedonians and Greeks!

To answer your question there was without a doubt a relation between Thracians and the Germanic Cimbri even if they were closer to Celts regarding lifestyle and warfare.

Thraco-Cimmerians migrated in Cimbri teritory and merged with them. This is proved by testing mithocondrial DNA. Back then Cimbri were Celts and lived near the Alps. Only later they merged with the Germans from the north and took the Etruscan-based runic writing system with them. They are responsible for the Etruscan scripts in Northern Europe.

Many Celtic tribes that lived in Southeastern Europe claimed to be descendends of the Thracians! They were Celto-Thracians!

Distribution of Thraco-Cimmerian finds!

We Romanians have such a great history and we don't even know it!


Dacian Language and Proto-Baltic 

There are a lot of theories regarding Dacian Language. One is about Dacian connecting with Baltic languages and, flowingly, Baltic tribes:
From wiki (

"A number of scholars have pointed to the many close parallels between Dacian and Thracian placenames and those of the Baltic ( language-zone (Lithuania (, Latvia ( and East Prussia (, a region where an extinct but well-documented Baltic language, Old Prussian (, was spoken until it was displaced by German ( during the Middle Ages.[89] ( These Baltic parallels have enabled linguists to decipher many Dacian and Thracian placenames. Of the 74 Dacian placenames analysed by Duridanov in his 1969 essay, a total of 62 have Baltic cognates, the great majority rated "certain" by Duridanov.[90] ( To explain this, Duridanov suggests that proto-Dacian- and proto-Thracian- speakers were in close geographical proximity with proto-Baltic-speakers for a prolonged period in prehistory, perhaps during the period 3000-2000 BC.[91] ( Mayer ventures further, suggesting that Dacian and Thracian were what he terms "southern pre-Baltoidic" languages, presumably meaning either proto-Baltic or close descendants of proto-Baltic.[92] ( The partially satem characteristics of Thracian and Dacian and their similarities to the Baltic group suggest that an ancestral Thraco-Dacian people was settled in Dacia until part of it migrated into Thrace[93] ("

To support this theory I have looked at the list of reconstructed Dacian words and compared them with Lithuanian words (also including dialects and old. Lithuanian words).

As you can see the list of similar words is impressive. Have in mind that I was not checking Latvian words and also Old Prussian. Let see if you can also get other comparisons with Romanian, Albanian or Slavic languages and then we can draw our conclusions.

13-06-11, 00:54
I doubt this because of the germanic tongue of the bastanae that seperated the finnic/baltic languages from the dacian/thracian ones. Unless the lithuatians had a germanic language from the peucini, then.......

I found these sites

and also this site below which indicates a latinized base for its language

as you can see it belongs fully with a southern italian linguistic group . Its an eastern latin group

so still we can determine the language of Thracians, if Daci is original or south Slavic, .
well the ancient scripts never mantion Thracian west of Dinaric Alps,
I believe that must be a basis the cut with razor any Illyrian,
the tribes in Illyria and the tribes of Dardani,
Dardani are mentioned as Illyrothracian, that means could speak or understand both,
Illyrians are never mentioned as Thracians,

the case of Latino-Thracian or Slavo-Thracian hmmmm it is difficult,
if we consider Pomaks of Echinos are original thracians, and not scythians that find to dwell there, then the case is Heavy to Slavic,
if we considered that Daci never invaded by mass slavic but from Romans and in Byzantine time were Latino-speakers that also leads us to Slavic-Thracians,

I believe a key to solve is the different names
Greeks call Thracians the Pannoni the tribaldi the Odrysse, But Getae the Daci, the today area of Crimea and Ucraine
But the archaiological evidence are not showing much connection with Slavic, but mostly with Greek and Latin
The case of Skodra-Skudra, that connects Persian with Thracian seems it is not so strong so Thracians be assimilated by Persian culture,

I believe that the secret is among Vrygians and Bithini in Past, while today ..... isolated Pomaks Gorani and Torbesi?

the case of an East Latin language is connected as many times I said with Pelasgians and Anatolian Languages.

according ancient Geographers Thracians expand east of Dinaric Alps and Getae from Romania to Asia,
the case of a Queen of Getae sends us to North of Persia,



List of Reconstructed Dacian Words

List of reconstructed Dacian words

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article contains a list of reconstructed words of the ancient Dacian language. They have been restored by some linguists from attested Dacian place and personal names (toponyms and anthroponyms) using the comparative linguistic method; or from words believed by some scholars to be Dacian relics in the modern Romanian and Albanian languages.[1][2]

In the case of words reconstructed from onomastic evidence, the original meanings ascribed to the names in question are assumed from close cognates in other Indo-European languages.[3] However, the results are hypothetical and subject, in some cases, to divergent etymological interpretations.[4] Reconstructions derived from Romanian and Albanian words are based on the disputed theory that early Albanian descends from Daco-Moesian and the separate, mainstream view that Dacian forms the main linguistic substratum of the Romanian language.



[edit] Reconstruction of words from place and personal names

In the 1960's, the Bulgarian linguists Vladimir I. Georgiev and Ivan Duridanov used the comparative linguistic method to decipher the meanings of ancient Thracian and Dacian names and to reconstruct Thracian and Dacian words. Duridanov reconstructed ca. 100 Dacian words,[5] and Georgiev about a dozen. Georgiev also reconstructed ca. 180 Thracian words.[6] The reliability of these reconstructions is controversial in academic circles. While the two Bulgarians claim that their results are "certain" or at least "very probable", Polomé (1982) considers that only 20-25 Dacian, and 40-45 Thracian, reconstructed words are reasonably well-founded.[7]

Georgiev argues that one can reliably decipher the meaning of an ancient place-name in an unknown language by comparing it to its successor-names and to cognate place-names and words in other IE languages, both ancient and modern. He gives several examples of his methodology, of which one is summarised here:

The city and river (a tributary of the Danube) in eastern Romania called Cernavodă. In Slavic, the name means "black water". The same town in Antiquity was known as Άξίοπα (Axiopa) or Άξιούπολις (Axioupolis) and its river as the Άξιος (Axios). The working assumption is, therefore, that Axiopa means "black water" in Dacian. According to the known rules of formation of IE composite words, this breaks down as axi = "black" and opa or upa = "water" in Dacian (the -polis element is ignored, as it is a Greek suffix meaning "city"). The assumption is then validated by examining cognate placenames. The axi element is validated by another Danube tributary called the Axios, which is today known as Crna reka (located in Republic of Macedonia: "black river") and by the older Greek name for the Black sea, Άξεινος πόντος (Axeinos pontos, later altered to the euphemism Euxeinos pontos = "Hospitable sea"). The opa/upa element is validated by the Lithuanian cognate upė ("water").[8] N.B. This etymology is questioned by Russu: Axiopa, a name attested only in Procopius' De Aedificiis, may be a corrupt form of Axiopolis.[9] Even if correct, however, Russu's objection is irrelevant: it does not invalidate the decipherment of the axi- element (which is validated by other toponyms) and the -upa element appears in other placenames e.g. Scenopa (see upa entry in table below).

Russu (1967) attempted to decipher Thracian and Dacian onomastic elements (placenames and personal names) by reference to presumed proto-Indo-European roots-words.[10] But Georgiev considers such a methodology (known as Wurzeletymologien = "root-etymologies"), used in isolation, to be "devoid of scientific value".[11] This is because the root-words themselves are reconstructions, which are in some cases disputed and in all cases subject to uncertainty; multiple root-words can often explain the same word; and the list of proposed IE root-words may not be complete.

There have also been other attempts to reconstruct Dacian words e.g. Reichenkron (1966).[10] The latter assumes that so-called "substratum" words in Romanian (those whose etymology cannot convincingly be ascribed to Romanian's parent-language Latin or to any of the fully documented languages that have influenced Romanian: Slavic, Hungarian, Greek, Turkish etc.) are of Dacian origin. But Polomé considers that such a methodology is not reliable.[12] This is because the process of elimination described cannot exclude the possibility that a word derives from other, unknown or little-known tongues that were at some period current in Dacia or Moesia: for example, possible pre-Indo-European language(s) of the Carpathians or Balkans; or the Illyrian, Thracian and Paeonian languages, spoken alongside Daco-Moesian in the Balkans for at least 2 millennia. Almost half the Romanian substratum words have close cognates in Albanian: since the latter is considered by mainstream scholarship to be a descendant of Illyrian, it is possible that many of the Romanian substratum words are of Illyrian, rather than Dacian, origin. In other words, there is no guarantee that the Romanian "substratum" words are, in reality, of Dacian origin.

The methodology employed by Georgiev and Duridanov has been questioned by other scholars on a number of grounds, including:

  1. The phonetic systems of Dacian and Thracian and their evolution are not reconstructed from elements derived directly from the ancient languages in question but from their approximative Greek and Latin transcripts.[13] [14].
  2. The etymologies that are adduced to validate the proposed Dacian and Thracian vowel- and consonant- changes (that are, in turn, used for word-reconstruction by the comparative method) are open to divergent interpretations, since the material is strictly onomastic, with the exception of Dacian plant names and of the limited number of glosses.[15] Because of this, there are divergent and even contradictory assumptions for the phonological structure and development of the Dacian and Thracian languages. [15]
  3. In the case of personal names, the choice of etymology is often a matter of compliance with such assumed phonological rules [16].
  4. Since, based on the work of Georgiev, the geographical aspect of occurrence of sound changes (i.e. o > a) within "Thracian territory" considered in the wider sense began to be emphasized by some researchers, the chronological aspect has been rather neglected.[17]
  5. There are numerous and important cases where inadequate evidence has obscured the vocalism of these ancient idioms, resulting in the most contradictory theories. [18] Poghirc estimates some 3,000 known Thracian and Dacian lexical units (a substantial number of which are attested in inscriptions and in literature). About 30 of these display alternations between o and a. According to Poghirc, Georgiev and Russu explain only a few of these, and the same explanation is not valid for all of them. [19]
  6. Both Georgiev and Duridanov ignore the context of the names and start from arbitrary assumptions, such as considering a name Dacian just because it is attested in Dacia or because it is a hapax.[20]
  7. According to Dana, Duridanov's method is unreliable because it uses doubtful names, and names which certainly are not Dacian and because most of the names are hapaxes. Also the names are in most cases explained using dubious Baltic etymologies.[21]
  8. Duridanov's results are in contradiction with the reconstruction of a Balto-Slavic language group, as they show many parallels between Dacian and Baltic, but not Slavic languages.[22]

[edit] Reconstruction from Romanian and Albanian words

Georgiev, Duridanov and Russu concur that the Dacian language constitutes the main pre-Latin substratum of the modern Romanian language.[citation needed] Duridanov also accepts Georgiev's theory that modern Albanian is descended from Daco-Moesian.[citation needed] The latter view, however, is contested by many linguists, especially Albanian, who consider the language a direct descendant of the extinct Illyrian language. Thus, reconstructions based on modern Albanian words, or Romanian substratum words with Albanian cognates, may actually represent ancient Illyrian, rather than Dacian, elements.[citation needed]

There exists a fringe theory (e.g. Paliga) that Illyrian was closely related to Dacian and Thracian, being descended from a proposed Thraco-Illyrian branch of IE.[citation needed] Some of the words cognate between the Romanian substrate and Albanian also have close Baltic cognates,[23] e.g. Latvian mala, "river-bank", which Demiraj[24] lists as a cognate for Romanian mal ("shore") and Albanian mal ("mountain"). Orel considers Lithuanian mažulis and mažas a cognate for Albanian modhullë and modhë, and Romanian mazăre 'pea'. Nevertheless, the Thraco-Illyrian hypothesis lacks evidential basis and has not been accepted by the academic mainstream.[25]

Where such a modern word can be plausibly linked to an Indo-European root and/or modern cognates of similar meaning, a reconstruction of the putative Dacian original has been proposed.

[edit] Table of reconstructed words

MeaningPossible Indo-European
Ancient cognates
(same meaning unless stated)
Modern cognates
(same meaning unless stated)
*aba, apa[26]water, river*ab- ("water", "river")

It derived from akwa (shift kw>p, gw>b) [27]

aqua ("water"), amnis ("stream": Latin: der.< arc. *abnis); ap-(Old Persian "river")apă (Romanian), upė (Lith.)RN *Calabaeus,[28] river in Scythia Minor
RN Apos
RN Abava (Lith.)Apos is a Dacian or an Illyrian river name [29] [30]
*akmon[31]stone, rock άχμον: "meteorite" (Gr.)PN Άκμονία (Phrygia)akmuo (Lith.)
akmuons (Old Latv.)
PN Άκμονία (Akmonia);[32]
PN Acmonia[33]
in R. Dacia between river Thibiscum and Sarmizegethusa
RN Akmene (Lith.)
LN Akmenas (Lith.)
PN Άκμονία (Phrygia)
Acmonia was spelled Augmonia and Agmonia by the Geographer of Ravenna[34]
*albo[35]white*albho ‘white’[35]albus (Latin)alb (Romanian)PN Alboca (Dacia)[35]

TN = Albocensi [35]

*alda (noun),
*alta- (adj.)[36]
swamp, waterlogged*olda, *olta ("water", "odorous") aleti (Lith.: "flooded")
aluots (Latv.: "source")
ałt (Arm.: "filthy")
PN Άλδανες (Aldanes):[37] fort near Naissus (Moesia Sup.)
PN Αλτίνα (Altina):[38] fort nr. Tramarisca
RN Aldes (Latv.)
RN Altis (Lith.)
SN Altenes (Latv.)
The Dacian origin of Aldanes is controversial.[39]
*alm-[40]to flow, to stream  almeti (Lith)RN Almus Moesia Inferior (river Lom, Bulg); PN Almo, fort at mouth of Lom (Itin. Ant. 219.4)RN Almė (Lith); LN Ałmji (Latv) 
*amalasmistletoe   PN Amlaidina  
*auras, *auro[41]water, moisture, pool*uer, *au(e)r 'wet, moisten'[41]  RN Αύρας (Auras)  
*axi-black a-xsei ‘black, dark’ (Iranian) [42] PN Άξίοπα town in Scythia Minor, RN Macedonian river (now Vardar)[42] Axios is considered reflecting the Iranian root a-xsei ‘black, dark’ [42]. Russu argues Axiopa is not a Dacian name, but a corrupt rendition of Axiopolis.[9]
*baidasfrightening, repulsive   PN Baetarus  
*balwarrior   PRN Decebalus  
*balas,*balos[43]strong [43]*bel ('strong')[43], [44]Sanskrit bala-m- 'force, strong' [44] PRN Decebalus[43]  
*balaswhite*bhel- ('white, bright') [45]
ancient Greek phalos, phalios, ancient Greek balios "dappled"(<balios is considered a loan from Thracian or Illyrian; it is attested as far back as Homer's Iliad)
Russ. belyj 'white'
Lit. bãlas 'white'
Alb. balë "bright", Alb. bal, "piebald dog or horse" [46]
PRN Balius  
*berzabirch-tree*bhereg "shine" "white" including "birch-tree" [47] berzas (Lith.) bereza (Ukr)PN Bersovia, BerzoviaHere, it is no observable difference between Thracian and Dacian[48]
*bur, buris[49]plentiful, rich, swollen [49].*b(e)u-, bh(e)u-(`to swell, inflate, plentiful') [49].Old Indian bhū́-ri-ḥ `rich, a lot, immense'[49]. PRN Burebista and PRN Mucabur [49], Buridava, Buri (Dacian tribe)  
*brukla[50]cranberry*bhreu-k- ("to spread") brūkle (Latv.)TN Breuci? (Thrac. tribe-name)
PN Brucla[51]
(fort in Dacia, W of R. Mureş)
MN Brùkļu (Latv.)
SN Bruklynė (Lith.)
*buta(s)[52]house, hut, dwelling  bùtas, butà (Lith.)
buts (Latv.: "small house")
buttan (Old Pr.)
PN Βούττις (Bouttis)[53](fort in Dacia Med.)
PN Boutae[54] (mountain pass into Dacia)
PN Butani (Latv.)
PN Butyn (Old Pr.)
RN Butėnių (kaimas) (Lith.)
The Dacian origin of Bouttis is controversial. Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 84, but Celtic according to Beševliev 1970, p. 99.
*čuk-[55]peak, summit*ḱu- ("sharp", "pike") ciucă (Rom.)PN Thōkyōdis Via[56]
PN *Thoukysidantikī[57]
*dabacharacter, nature   PRN Δαβεις  
*dabaput in order, good [58]Dabh (‘arrange, suitable‘)[58]  PRN Dabeis [58]  
*davacity, fortress   e.g. PN Rusidava, PN Argedava  
*degisburning, shiningdhegʷh (‘to burn‘)[59]Lit. dègti 'to burn' PRN Degis  
*dinaplace, area, plain   PN Amlai-dina, PN Dinogetia  
*dikasbrave or strong, mighty   PRN Decebalus  
*dita(s)[60]light (noun), bright (adj.)*dei-, *di- (to shine, shimmer)*ditas (Thrac.)ditë "day" (Alb.)PRN Ditugentus[61]PRN Ditte (Old Pr.)
PN Ditava (Lith.)
*drasdathrush (bird)  drazdas (Lith.)PN Drasdea  
*dribas, *drigas[62]wild, restless  dribis, dribulis (Latv.:"a restless man")
drignis (Lith.)
PRN Dribalus[63]
PRN Aurelius Drigissa,[64] a veteran of Legio VII Claudia
PN Driba (Latv.)
PN Drigotas (Lith.)
RN Dryzel (Old Latv.)
RN Drigin'a (Russia, of Baltic origin)
*duia[65]swamp or mist, drizzle  dujà (Lith.: both meanings)
dujs (Latv.: "dirty")
PN Δουιανα (Douiana), fort in Dacia Mediterranea[66]PN Dujas (Latv.)
RN Dyja (Russia, prob. Baltic origin)
PN Daujėnai (Lith.)
The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.[67]
*dumasdark brown   PN Dimum (from *Dumum)  
*galtissheet-ice, frostgel(ǝ) (‘cold, freeze‘)[68]  PN Galtis  
*genukla[69]pasture, meadow  ganyklà (Lith.)
ganīkla (Latv.)
PN Γένουκλα (Genucla)[70]
(fortress of Getan king Zyraxes on Danube)
SN Dzęnuklis (Latv.) 
*ger[71]smart, awake[71]*ger-4, grēi-(to grow; to awake)[72] [71]  PRN Gerula[71]  
*geras[73]good (-natured), kind*guer(α)-[74] gēras (Lith.)PRN Gerulo
PRN Gerula
PN Gerulių (Lith.)
RN Gerùlis (Lith.)
*germashot, warm   PN Γέρμαζα  
*gilus[69]deep  gilùs (Lith.)
dziļš (Latv.)
gillin (Old Pr.)
PN Gildoba,[75] unknown "Thracian" location where St. Julius was reveredRNs Gilijà, Gilupis, Gỹlė (Lith.)
LN Gilge (Old Pr.)
LN Dziļaune (Latv.)
*gira (giria)forest or mountaingʷeru (‘pole, pike‘)[76] Lith. girià 'forest'
Rus. gora 'mountain'
PN Giridava  
*granda[77]plank  grandà (Lith.: "bridge-plank")
grandico (Old Pr.)
gruõdi (Latv.)
PN Γράνδετον (Grandeton),[78] fort near Naissus(Moesia Superior)PN Grandų káimas (Lith.)
RNs Gruõds, Gruõdi, Gruõdupis (Latv.)
The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.[79]
*griva[77]river-bed or river-mouth ? *grava (Thrac.: "valley" or "river-bed")grĩva (Latv.: "river-mouth")
greva (Lith.: "river-bed")
PN Γρίβο (Grivo),[80] fort near Naissus (moesia Sup.)RN Grýva(Lith.)
RNs Grīva, Grīvīte (Latv.)
The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.[81]
kaga[82]sacred, holy*kʷog(h)- (< *kʷeg(h)-) kazat′, skazat′ (Sl. "to tell", "to say")kaga[83]  
*kalascatfish?   RN Calabaeus  
*kapashill, slope   PN Καπίδαυα (Capidava)  
*kapurahill   PN Capora,[84] in basin of river Tyras (Dniester)  
*karpato cut, stone [85]*sker, *ker 'to cut' [85], [86]. karpe, karma (*karp-m-) 'stone' (Albanian) [85]MN Carpates TN Karpoi, Carpi [85], [86].'Carpathians Mountains'[85], Carpi tribe [86]. 
*karsacave   PN Carsion  
*katasstall, animal enclosure, fish-basin   PN Κάττουζα  
*kedachair, stool  kede (Lith.)PN Cedonia  
*kerbaswampy ground   PN Cerbatis  
*kernabush   PN *Cerna  
*kertaclearing in a wood  kerta (Lith.)PN Certie  
*kinadry place in a swamp   PN Ciniscus  
*klevasmaple-tree  klevas (Lith.)PN Clevora  
*krataswampy place or pile, heap   PN Κρατίσκαρα The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.[87]
*kurtagrove, glade   PN Κουρτα  
*lug-swamp, morass   RN Λύγινος  
*malbank, coast [88]  mal (Romanian)PN Dacia Malvensis (Latin Dacia Ripensis)[88] The Dacian word is preserved in the Romanian word mal 'bank, coast' and in the

Albanian word mal 'mountain', which correspond to the Lettish word mala 'bank, boundary'[88]

*maskapool, puddle   PN Μασκάς  
*medekaglade, small wood   PN Μέδεκα The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.[89]
*musasmould, moss   RN Μουσαίος  
*nara(s)river, brook   RN (Rom. from Dac.) Nǎruja  
*pala, *palmaswamp, bog palus (Latin)bala (Lith.)PN Παλαδεινα; PN Palmatis  
*pil-to flow  pila (Lith.)RN Gilpil  
*preidapine-tree   PN Πρέιδις  
*put-to swell, thicken  puti 'decay' (Lith.)PN Putina  
*rabo, rebo‘to move’ ‘to flow’ ‘be in motion’*rebh ‘to move’ ‘to flow’ ‘be in motion’ [90] raib- (Lith.)RN Rabon river in Dacia (Jiul?) It was etymologically connected with Arabon (Narabon?) from Pannonia [91]  
*ramuspeaceful, restful  ramus 'peaceful'(Lith.)PN Ραμίδαυα (Ramidava)  
*rō(u)kadrizzle, fine rain  rukas (Lith.)PN (from RN) Rhocobae  
*rus-to flow   PN Rusidava  
*san-apaconfluence (of two rivers)  santaka 'confluence of two rivers' upe 'river'(Lith.)RN Sanpaeus  
*sausasdrysaus- (‘dry‘)[92] Lith. sausas 'dry'PRN Sausa  
*sermasriver, river-current   PN Sirmium  
*skabassharp, quick, lively   PRN Σκαβης  
*skauduspainful, sad or powerful  skaudus 'painful' (Lith.)TN Scaugdae  
*skuiafir-treesk(h)u̯oi̯-, sk(h)u̯i(i̯)- (‘needle, thorn‘)[92] Latv. skuja 'spruce-needle' skuja (Lith.)PN Σκουάνες The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.[93]
*skumbrashill, down  skumbre (Lith.)PN Σκουμβρο The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.[94]
*spirusfast, quick, rapid   RN Πασπίριος  
*stendasstiff, rigid, viscose  standus 'stiff' (Lith.)PN Στένδαι The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial. Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 479, but Latin according to Beševliev 1970, pp. 94, 114.
*sukatear (ripped), gap   PN Σουκίδαυα (Sucidava)  
*surassalty  surus 'salty'(Lith.)PN Σούρικον  
*taraschatterer, gossiper   PRN Tara  
*tautapeople, nation, country  tauta 'nation' (Lith.)PRN Tautomedes  
*tirasbare, barren, desolate   FN Τίριξις  
*tut-blow, smoke   RN Tutupis  
*upariver  upe 'river' (Lith.)PN Scenopa  
*urdastream, brook   RN Όρδησσός  
*vaigasfast, rapid   PN (from RN) Aegeta  
*varpawhirlpool   PN (from RN) Άρπις  
*visasfertile, fruitful  visas 'whole' (Lith.)PN Βισ-δίνα  
*zalmo-fur, skin, shield   PRN Ζαλμοδεγικος
*zelmasshoot (of a plant)   PRN Ζαλμοδεγικος  
*zud-ascareful, precise   PRN Zude  
*zurashot, shining   RN Zyras  
*zuv-fish zuvis 'fish' (Lith.)Romanian juvete, a species of fish [95] There are Baltic cognates also, apparently no close Albanian cognate   

N.B. Asterisk (*before word) indicates reconstructed word
PN = `settlement placename

PRN = personal name
TN = tribal name

RN = river/stream/brook name
LN = lake/pool/spring/waters name
SN = swamp name

MN = mountain/hill name
FN = field/meadow name
PLN = plant name

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Duridanov (1969) 90-5
  2. ^ Georgiev (1976) 276-8
  3. ^ Duridanov (1969) 12-13
  4. ^ Polomé 1982, p. 878
  5. ^ Duridanov & 1969 91-3.
  6. ^ Georgiev & 1977 99-102.
  7. ^ Polomé 1982, p. 872.
  8. ^ Georgiev (1976) 277
  9. ^ a b See Russu 1963, p. 131 and Russu 1969, p. 76. Ἀξιόπλ is assumed to be an abbreviation for Axiopolis in the manuscripts of De Aedificiis.
  10. ^ a b Posner & Green 1981, pp. 71.
  11. ^ Georgiev 1977, p. 276.
  12. ^ Polome & 1982 876.
  13. ^ Fisher & 2003 570.
  14. ^ Polome & 1982 885.
  15. ^ a b Polome 1982, p. 878-879.
  16. ^ Polome 1982, p. 881.
  17. ^ Poghirc 1989, p. 297.
  18. ^ Poghirc 1989, p. 306.
  19. ^ Poghirc 1989, p. 297-298.
  20. ^ Dana 2003, p. 170.
  21. ^ Dana 2003, p. 169-170.
  22. ^ Messing 1972, p. 962.
  23. ^ Vladimir Orel A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian language, Bardhyl Demiraj, Albanian Inherited Lexicon
  24. ^ Bardhyl Demiraj, Albanian Inherited Lexicon Online, page 30
  25. ^ Polome 1982, p. 872.
  26. ^ Duridanov (1969) 35, 92
  27. ^ Walde-Pokorny 1959, p. 46
  28. ^ ISM I 68
  29. ^ Kitson 1996, p. 218.
  30. ^ Athanassakis 1999, p. 108.
  31. ^ Duridanov (1969) 14, 92
  32. ^ Ptolemy III.8.4
  33. ^ Rav. 203.14
  34. ^ Schütte & 1917 85.
  35. ^ a b c d Russu & 1967 90.
  36. ^ Duridanov (1969) 15, 16, 92
  37. ^ Proc. De Aed IV.4
  38. ^ Proc. De Aed. IV.11
  39. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 11, but Celtic according to Beševliev 1970, p. 104, cf. Aldaniae, Aldaniacus mons.
  40. ^ Duridanov & 1969 15, 92.
  41. ^ a b Russu & 1967 137 and 143.
  42. ^ a b c Parvulescu & 1989 291.
  43. ^ a b c d Russu & 1969 150 and 163.
  44. ^ a b Walde et al. 110.
  45. ^ Walde et al. 118-120.
  46. ^ Demiraj et al..
  47. ^ Walde et al. 170.
  48. ^ Solta & 1980 22.
  49. ^ a b c d e Russu & 1967 97 and 132.
  50. ^ Duridanov (1969) 22, 90
  51. ^ Tab. Peut. VIII.2
  52. ^ Duridanov (1969) 21, 90
  53. ^ Proc. De Aed IV.4; Hes. 122.26
  54. ^ Jord. Get. 74
  55. ^ Olteanu (2007)
  56. ^ Olteanu 2007. Θωκύωδις βία in Proc. De Aed., IV.11,15
  57. ^ Olteanu 2007. *Θουκυσιδαντικη is one of the strategies of Thrace. Θουκυσιδαντικῆς on IGB IV 2338.
  58. ^ a b c Russu & 1969 151 and 158.
  59. ^ Walde et al. 240.
  60. ^ Duridanov (1969) 77, 90
  61. ^ CIL III.835
  62. ^ Duridanov (1969) 77-8, 90
  63. ^ CIL III.3888
  64. ^ CIL III.14507
  65. ^ Duridanov (1969) 30, 90
  66. ^ Proc. De Aed. IV.4; Hes. 121, 17
  67. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 151, but Latin according to Russu 1962, p. 398 and Beševliev 1970, p. 97, derived with suffix -iana.
  68. ^ Walde et al. 366.
  69. ^ a b Duridanov (1969) 23, 90
  70. ^ Dio LI.26
  71. ^ a b c d Russu & 1967 137 and 140.
  72. ^ Walde-Pokorny, Julius 598f.
  73. ^ Duridanov (1969) 76, 90
  74. ^ Pokorny 478
  75. ^ Acta SS Nov. II.155 XIII Kal. ian.
  76. ^ Walde et al. 479.
  77. ^ a b Duridanov (1969) 25, 91
  78. ^ Proc. De Aed. IV.4; H. 122, 51
  79. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 108, but Latin according to Beševliev 1970, p. 106: Granditum [castellum].
  80. ^ Proc. De Aed. IV.4; H. 124, 9
  81. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 109, but Latin or Celtic according to Beševliev 1970, pp. 25, 114: Gribus possibly derived from a Celtic *gravo = "sand".
  82. ^ Sluşanschi (1989)
  83. ^ Olteanu 1989. The word καγα occurs twice, in ISM II 36 and in ISM II 138, with the meaning sacrum.
  84. ^ Rav. 178, 3
  85. ^ a b c d e Russu & 1969 114 and 205.
  86. ^ a b c Poghirc & 1989 302.
  87. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 266, possibly derived from a Greek name, but Celtic according to Beševliev 1970, p. 93.
  88. ^ a b c Georgiev 1981, p. 126.
  89. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 291, but Latin according to Beševliev 1970, p. 97: the adjective medicus.
  90. ^ Russu & 1969 153 and 158.
  91. ^ Russu & 1969 134.
  92. ^ a b Walde et al. 880.
  93. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 461, but Latin according to Beševliev 1970, p. 100: squama = "scale, metal plate".
  94. ^ Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 459,461, related to the Thracian tribe Σκόμβροι, and to the mountain name Σκόμβρος, but Latin according to Beševliev 1970, pp. 57, 111: scomber = "mackerel".
  95. ^ Duridanov

[edit] References

[edit] Ancient

[edit] Modern

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  • Asenova, Petja (1999). Bulgarian in Handbuch der Südosteuropa-Linguistik. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz. ISBN 978347039390.
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  • Beševliev, Veselin (1970). Zur Deutung der Kastellnamen in Prokops Werk "De Aedificiis". Amsterdam.
  • Fraser, P.M., Matthews (1959). Samothrace: no. 1. The inscriptions on stone edited by Karl Lehmann Phyllis Williams Lehmann. Pantheon Books.
  • Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World (2000)
  • Gordon, Childe (1930). The Bronze Age/With Map. Biblo-Moser. ISBN 978-0819601230.
  • CIL: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
  • Crossland, R.A.; Boardman, John (1982). "Linguistic problems of the Balkan area in the late prehistoric and early Classical period". The Cambridge Ancient History. III.1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521224963.
  • Dana, Dan (2003). "Les daces dans les ostraca du désert oriental de l'Égypte. Morphologie des noms daces.". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 143: 166–186.
  • Detschew, Dimiter (1957). Die thrakischen Sprachreste. Vienna.
  • Georgiev, Vladimir I. (1977) (in Bulgarian, French summary). Trakite i technijat ezik/Les Thraces et leur langue (The Thracians and their language). Sofia, Bulgaria: Izdatelstvo na Bălgarskata Akademija na naukite.
  • Price, Glanville (1998). Encyclopedia of the languages of Europe. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22039-9.
  • Du Nay, André (1977). The early history of the Rumanian language.
  • Duridanov, I. (1969): Die Thrakisch- und Dakisch-Baltischen Sprachbeziehungen
  • Fisher, Iancu (2003). Les substrats et leur influence sur les langues romanes: la Romania du Sud-Est / Substrate und ihre Wirkung auf die romanischen Sprachen: Sudostromania in Romanische Sprachgeschichte. Mouton De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110146943.
  • Fol, Alexander (1996). ‘’Thracians, Celts, Illyrians and Dacians’’ in History of Humanity: From Seventh Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D. Bernan Assoc.. ISBN 978-9231028120.
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  • Kitson, Peter R. (1996). "Reconstruction, typology and the “original homeland” of the Indo-Europeans". In Fisiak, Jacek. Linguistic reconstruction and typology. Mouton De Gruyter. pp. 183–239. ISBN 978-3110149050.
  • Lloshi, Xhevat (1999): Albanian in Handbuch der Südosteuropa Linguistik Band 10 (online)
  • Mayer H.E. (1992): Dacian and Thracian as southern Baltoidic in Lituanus Vol. 38 no 2 (online)[unreliable source?]
  • Messing, Gordon M. (1972). "'Thrakisch-dakische Studien, I: Die thrakisch- und dakisch-baltischen Sprachbeziehungen by Ivan Duridanov' reviewed by Gordon M. Messing Cornell University Edited by George Melville Bolling". Language (Linguistic Society of America) 48 (4): 960–963.
  • Nandris, John (1976). The Dacian Iron Age A Comment in a European Context in Festschrift für Richard Pittioni zum siebzigsten Geburtstag. Wien, Deuticke, Horn, Berger. ISBN 9783700544203.
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  • Olteanu, Sorin (1989). "Kaga şi Kōgaionon. Datele problemei.". Thraco-Dacica X: 215–217.
  • Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribes in Pre-Roman Times:Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci, & Moesians, translated by Mary Stansfield-Popovic. John Benjamins North America, Incorporated. ISBN 9789025607937.
  • Parvan, Vasile (1928). Dacia. The Cambridge University Press.
  • Parvulescu, Adrian (1989). ‘Black water’ in the Thracian hidronymy Thracians and Mycenaeans: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Thracology Rotterdam, 24–26 September 1984. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 978-9004088641.
  • Poghirc, Cicerone (1989). "Considerations chrono-geographiques sur l’oscillation a/o en Thrace et en Daco-Mesien" published in Thracians and Mycenaeans: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Thracology Rotterdam, 24–26 September 1984. Brill Academic. ISBN 978-0819601230.
  • Polomé, Edgar Charles (1982). "Balkan Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian)". Cambridge Ancient History. III.1. pp. 866–888.
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  • Rădulescu, Mircea-Mihai (1987). The Indo-European position of Illyrian, Daco-Mysian and Thracian: A historica-methodological approach. Journal of Indo-European Studies. ISSN 15.239-271.
  • Renfrew, Colin (1987): Archaeology and Language: the Puzzle of Indo-European Origins
  • Russu, Ion Iosif (1962). "Les toponymes dans la péninsule des Balkans dans le "De aedificiis"". Studii şi Cercetări Lingvistice XIII: 393–403.
  • Russu, Ion Iosif (1963). "Die Ortsnamen der Balkanhalbinsel in De Aedificiis". Revue de Linguistique VIII: 123–132.
  • Russu, Ion Iosif (1969). Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker.
  • Solta, Georg Renatus (1980). Berücksichtigung des Substrats und des Balkanlateinischen. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Schütte, Gudmund (1917). Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe: a reconstruction of the prototypes. H. Hagerup.
  • Sluşanschi, Dan (1989). "Kaga şi Kōgaionon. Analiză filologică şi lingvistică.". Thraco-Dacica X: 219–224.
  • Walde-Pokorny, Julius (1959). The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW, "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") and notes.
  • Walde, Alois; Pokorny, Julius (1973). Vergleichendes Warterbuch Der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110045567.
  • Thompson, E.A. (1982): Zosimus 6.10.2 and the Letters of Honorius in Classical Quarterly 33 (ii)

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[edit] External links


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