Pages in category "Romanian substratum words"
The following 122 pages are in this category, out of 122 total.
Trajan Column, Rome, 295, 17b Dacian warriors talking and playing a game before the battle.
Sorin Olteanu's Thraco-Daco-Moesian Languages Project (TDML)
Dacian is part of the Satem division of Indo-European language family
List of Reconstructed Dacian Words
Dacian Language and Proto-Baltic
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language
|Spoken in||Romania, Moldova, parts of Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Northern Bulgaria|
|Language extinction||probably by the sixth century AD|
|Language family||Indo-European |
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.|
|Indo-European languages (list)|
|Albanian · Armenian · Baltic|
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic
extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
|Europe: Balts · Slavs · Albanians · Italics · Celts · Germanic peoples · Greeks · Paleo-Balkans (Illyrians · Thracians · Dacians) · |
Asia: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians) · Armenians · Indo-Iranians (Iranians · Indo-Aryans) · Tocharians
|Language · Society · Religion|
Anatolia · Armenia · India · PCT
The Dacian language was spoken by the ancient inhabitants of Dacia. It belongs to the Indo-European language family.
Dacian is often considered to be a dialect of the same language as Thracian or to be a separate language from Thracian but closely related to it. (See Daco-Thracian.)
Many characteristics of the Dacian language are disputed or unknown. No Dacian inscriptions survive, save names using the Latin alphabet. What is known about the language derives from:
Dacian used to be one of the major languages of South-Eastern Europe, spoken from what is now Eastern Hungary to the Black Sea shore. Based on archaeological findings, the origins of the Dacian culture are believed to lie in Moldavia, being identified as an evolution of the Iron Age Basarabi culture.
Dacian was a satem language.
In the 1950s the Bulgarian linguist Vladimir Georgiev published a work in which he argued that the phonology of Dacian is close to that of Albanian, supporting the theory that Dacian was on the same language branch as the Albanian language, a language branch termed Daco-Moesian (or Daco-Mysian) — Moesian (or Mysian) being thought of as a transitional dialect between Dacian and Thracian.
There are cognates between Daco-Thracian and Albanian. These cognates may be evidence of a Daco-Thracian-Albanian language affinity.
The ancient Greek geographer Strabo claimed that the Getae spoke the same language as the Thracians. However, Georgiev argued that Dacian and Thracian are two different languages, with two different phonetic systems, supporting this view with the evidence of placenames, which end in -dava in Dacian and Moesian, as opposed to -para in Thracian placenames. (See List of Dacian cities and List of ancient Thracian cities.)
The argument for this early split (before 300 BC) is the following: Inherited Albanian words (e.g. Alb motër 'sister' < Late IE ma:ter 'mother') show the transformation Late IE /a:/ > Alb /o/, but all the Latin loans in Albanian having an /a:/ show Latin a: > Alb a. This indicates that the transformation PAlb /a:/ > PAlb /o/ happened and ended before the Roman arrival in the Balkans.
On the other hand, Romanian substratum words shared with Albanian show a Romanian /a/ that corresponds to an Albanian /o/ when the source of both sounds is an original Common /a:/ (mazăre / modhull < *ma:dzula 'pea', raţă / rosë < *ra:tya: 'duck'), indicating that when these words had the same Common form in Pre-Romanian and Proto-Albanian the transformation PAlb /a:/ > PAlb /o/ had not yet begun.
The correlation between these two facts indicates that the split between the Pre-Roman Dacians (those Dacians who were later Romanized) and Proto-Albanian happened before the Roman arrival in the Balkans.
The Dacian language may form the substratum of the Proto-Romanian language, which developed from the Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkans north of the Jirecek line, which roughly divides Latin influence from Greek influence.
Whether Dacian in fact forms the substratum of Proto-Romanian is disputed (see Origin of the Romanians (The Hungarian point of view)), yet this theory does not rely on the Romanization having occurred in Dacia, as Dacian was also spoken in Moesia, and as far south as northern Dardania. About 300 words in Eastern Romance (Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, Istro-Romanian) may derive from Dacian, and many of these show a satem-reflex, as one would expect in Daco-Thracian words.
The Romanian philologist Nicolae Densuşianu argued in his book Dacia Preistorică (Prehistoric Dacia) that Latin and Dacian were the same language or mutually intelligible dialects. His work was disregarded by mainstream linguists as pseudoscience, but it was revived by the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime, which encouraged an ideology called Protochronism and stressed the important role of the Dacians in the creation of the modern Romanian people.
The first article to revive Densuşianu's theory was an unsigned article named "The Beginnings of the History of the Romanian People" published in Anale de istorie, a journal published by the Romanian Communist Party's "Institute of History of the Party".
The article claims that the Thracian language was a pre-Romance or Latin language using a demonstration which Lucian Boia describes as "a lack of basic professionalism and a straightforward contempt for the truth". Arguments used in the article include the lack of interpreters between the Dacians and the Romans, as depicted on the bas-reliefs of Trajan's column. The bibliography includes, apart from Densuşianu, the work of a French academician Louis Armand (who is in fact an engineer), who allegedly showed that "the Thraco-Dacians spoke a pre-Romance language". Similar arguments are found in Iosif Constantin Drăgan's We, the Thracians (1976).
This generated a great interest on researching of history of Dacia and many (often non-rigorous) works were published, among them Ion Horaţiu Crişan's "Burebista and His Age" (1975), who concluded the need of writing a monograph on the subject of "Dacian philosophy". There were voices claiming the need of reconstructing the language and of the creation of a Dacian Language department at the University of Bucharest, but such proposals failed because of the lack of the object of study.
After the 1989 Romanian Revolution, this theory continued being supported by Drăgan and the New York City-based physician Napoleon Săvescu, who published a book named We are not Rome's Descendents. Together, they issue the magazine Noi, Dacii ("Us Dacians") and organize a yearly "International Congress of Dacology".
|For a list of words relating to Dacian language, see the Dacian language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary|
The following 122 pages are in this category, out of 122 total.
This site has good documentary information, but we can not agree or condone the bad language and invectives spread all over the text.
Un mic studiu comparativ între limbile sanscrită -la stînga semnului egal, limba română - la dreapta semnului egal – iar între paranteze sînt puse explicaţiile privind originea cuvintelor după DEX. ap, apa = apă(lat. aqua), apasabda = apăsat(lat. appensare), akasa*: cer = acasă: loc de baştină, patrie. Arienii ca şi geţii se considerau neam scoborîtor din cer(lat. casa), acaşa = acasă(a + lat. casa), acu = acu(eccum modo), adesa = adesa(a + lat. densus), anuma = anume(a + lat nume), ariyanam*: arienii = Aryanam: Ţara Zeilor la avestici, ţinut din nordul Iranului, aşa = aşa(lat. eccum), balimuca = balamuc(din nume propriu Mamaluc), balaha = baltă(sl. blato), banda = bandă(fr. bande), banica = baniţă(bg. banica), basma = basm(sl. basni), ban = bănie(maghiar sau sîrbo-croat ban), balacsa = bălaie(sl. bălu), bho*: formă de adresare unor indivizi inferiori sau egali = bă: tu(et. necunoscută), bhoga*: bogăţie = bogat: cu avere(sl. bogatu), bhikku*: călugăr cerşetor = bicu: tată(lipseşte din DEX), bhuh*: a devenit pământ, a murit = buh(et. necunoscută), bhuhav*: a devenit aer = puhav(sanscrit bhuhav), Bihar*: regiune în nordul Indiei unde s-au stabilit neamurile aryas = Bihar: regiune administrativă în vestul României, estul Ungariei şi munţi în Apuseni.kala*: negru = kala: pivniţă pentru cereale, groapă în emegi(fr. cale), camaşa = camaşa(lat. camisia), camera = cameră(fr. camera), cana = cana(bg. cana. Dar bulgarii au venit aici în secolul Vll, deci românii pînă să-i înveţe aceşti migratori, beau apa ca dobitoacele direct din baltă sau izvor), capala = cap(lat. caput; pînă să vină romanii eram fără cap aşa cum sînt lingviştii care au scris aceste neghiobii), carsu = car(lat. carrus), csha = casa(lat. casa), cşu = caş(lat. caseus), cazna = caznă(sl. kazni), carca = cîrcă(sîrbo-croatul krke), cita = ceată(sl. ceta), ciata = ceaţă(lat. caecia), cag = chiag(lat clagum), cîmitra = cimitir(neogreacă kimitirion), carvara = curvar(sl. kuruvari), cit*: a gîndi = citi(lat. citare), Krişna*: divinitate vedică foarte veche = crisma/crijma: învelitoarea de la botez a noului născut cu simboluri religioase pe ea(ukr. krijmo). ksatriya*: aristocraţia militară a neamurilor aryas din rîndul cărora a provenit atît Buddha cît şi contemporanul său Mahavira = şatra: clan la geţi(bg. şatra),dadaca = dădăci(neogreacă dada), darîmi = dărîma(lat. deramare) duciaba = degeaba(tr. caba; rău ne-aţi pocit limba criminalilor), danda*: pedeapsă pentru o faptă rea dată cu bastonul = dandana: necaz, bucluc, tărăboi(tc. tantana), denta = dinte(lat dens), dwar = dor(lat. populară dolus. Am zis eu că atunci cînd nu au cum s-o mai scoată pe mînecă o trag pe această făcătură neauzită şi neştiută de nimeni), dru = drum(sl. drumu), dabba = dubă: temniţă; daba la geţi era cetatea unde se ţineau judecăţile(et. necunoscută), druh = duh(sl. duhu), duvas = duios(lat. doliosus), dukha*: durere = ducă: plecare, moarte(lat. ducere), dulman = duşman(tr. düşman), dur = dur(lat. durus), dura = dura(lat. dolare), fala = fală(sl. hvala), vrate = frate(lat. frater), gaura = gaură(lat. avula), gatejas = găteje(sl. gati), ganaca = genunchi (lat. genuclum), gingina = gingie(lat gingiva), gora = gură(lat. gula), gutto*: lege sau doctrină religioasă = gotă: zi de post(nu este în DEX),haia = hai: cuvînt cu care se îndeamnă caii la drum(et. necunoscută), han = han(tr. han), hotu = hotar(maghiarul hotar), cirana = hrana(sl. hrana), ecata = iacătă(et. necunoscută), jadu = iad(sl. iadu), Yama*: zeul morţii = iama: a distruge(tc, yama), yuga: vîrstă = Iuga(nu este în DEX), iş = ieşi(lat. exire), ianma = inima(lat. anima), iub = iub(sl. liubiti), aderat = îndărăt(lat. inderetro), angiras = înger(lat. angelus), antarita = întări(et necunoscută), invati = învăţa(lat. invitiare), jwala = jale(sl. jali), jagdi = jigodie(maghiarul zsigora), yuga = jug(lat. jugum), jurya = jura(lat. jurare), lab = labă(maghiarul lab), laţua = laţe(et. necunoscută), lamba = limba(lat. lingua), lip*: mizerie, a unge, a mînji = lip: jeg, mizerie(ukr. lep), loca = loc(lat. locus), lup = lup(lat. lupus), lupta = lupta(lat. luctare), mahal*: mare = mahal: mare şi greu(lipseşte din DEX), man*: a gîndi = mana: rod, frupt, belşug(sl. mana), mata*: mamă = mata: formulă de politeţe(et. necunoscută), mardala = mardeală(ţigănescul mardo), mazara = mazăre(albanezul modhullë), meduva = măduvă(lat. medulla), magarc = măgar(bg. magare), mreţ = măreţ(lat. mas), mandra = mîndru(sl. mondru), mauna*: legămîntul tăcerii = mau: glas, vigoare, a lua maul – a reduce la tăcere(et. necunoscută), min*: a străluci = meni: a vrăji(sl. meniti), mîndza = mînz(albanezul mës), mladihta = mlădiţă(sl. mladu), mosur = mosor(tr. masura), muherea = muiere(lat. mulier), musti = must(lat. mustum), mustaca = mustaţă(lat. mustacea care înseamnă prăjitură), mutu = mut(lat. mutus), murta = mutra(neogreacă mutra), naiba = naiba(et. necunoscută), nas = nas(lat. nasus), namata = nămete(bg. namet), narabu = nărav(bg. nărav), natha*: stăpîna = nata: femeie adultă(lat. natus), niroda = nărod(bg. neroda), napat = nepot(lat. nepos), navasti = nevastă(sl nevesta), nacta = nagta,noapte(lat. noctis), nîra = nor(lat. nubilum), nama = nama,nume(lat. nomen), avi = oaie(lat. ovis), obositi = obosi(bg. oboseia), abadda = obadă(sl. obedu), acara = ocară(sl. ocariati), oka*: loc de şedere = oca: unitate de măsură din vechime(tc. okka), onam*: a curba, a îndrepta = onanii: om urît, pocitanie, arătare(et. necunoscută), odaia = odaie(bg. odaia), odor = odor(sanscritul odor), om = om(lat. homo), omlet = omletă(fr. omelette), opariti = opări(bg. oparia), upanaha = opinca(bg. opinka, adică ce purtau geţii de pe columna lui Traian nu erau opinci?), ortac = ortac(sanscrita ortac), ostaviti = ostoi(sl. ustoiati), aştravi = otrăvi(sl. otraviti), pakati*: fapte necugetate, fapte sau gînduri rele = pacatui: a face păcate, a greşi(lat. peccatum), pala = pală,paloş(tr. pala), pandur = pandur(maghiarul pandur), paperuda = paparudă(bg. peperuda), para = par(lat. palus), paradina = paragina, paradit(et. necunoscută), partac = partic,parte(lat. pars), pacata = păcat(lat. peccatum), pacala = păcală(et. necunoscută), palita = pălit(sl. paliti), paţîmi = păţi(lat. pateo), piya*: persoană îndrăgită = pio: iubitor de Dumnezeu(nu este în DEX), pîca = pace(lat. pacis), pingala*: în budism este unul dintre canalele energetice situat pe coloana vertebrală = pingală: imagine, pictură, a se găti(cuvîntul nu există în DEX). pita*: tată = pita: pîine, mijloace de existenţă, pitar – brutar(bg. pita), piti*: refugiu, adăpost = piti: a ascunde, a dosi(sl. pitiku), ipangea = pingea(tr. penşe), pisa = pisa(lat. pinsare), pluta = plută(bg. pluta), pama = poamă(lat. poma), pad = pod(sl. podu), povamîna = pomană(sl. pomenu), pradaţi = prăda(lat. praedare), pras = praz(bg. praz), Prajapati*: focul casei sau focul părinţilor ori a strămoşilor = praji(sl. prajiti) + pati(lat. pati), parihana: cădere, nenorocire, degenerare = prihană: necinste, păcat(ukr. pryhana), prapîde = prăpădi(bg.propadam), prasara = presăra(et. necunoscută), priatama = prieten(sl. priiateli), prîns = prînz(lat. prandium), Radha*: păstoriţă din Veda = Rada(et. necunoscută), rasa*: dans asemănător cu hora, închinat lui Krişna = rasa: de soi, bun(fr. race), rai = rai(sl. rai), ram = ram(lat. ramus), ravana = ravăn(sl. ravinu), racita = răci(lat. recens), rabos = răboj(bg. raboş), ră = ră(lat. reus), risipati = risipi(bg. rasipia), rabi = robi(sl. robu), rud = rudă(bg. roda), rage = ragea,rugă(tr. rica), ramana = rumîn(lat. romanus), rupa = rupe(lat. rumpere), sac = sac(lat. saccus), salbî = salba(lat. subalba), sara = sare(lat. salis), saddha*: credinţă, virtute = sadea: curat, pur(tc. sade), sadhu*: om sfînt = sade: butaşi de viţă-de-vie, răsad(sl. sadu), sagga*: plin de bucurie = şagă: glumă(bg. şega), samma*: observaţia sau judecata corectă = samă: recenzare pentru impunere (maghiarul szam), samana*: ascet care a învins dorinţele prin practici austere = samana: a pune sămînţa în ogor(lat. seminare), soma*: băutura care aduce nemurirea = samă: judecată, moarte(maghiarul szam) swah*: a devenit cer = suav(fr. suave), sâman*: denumirea jertfei adusă zeilor sau făcută pentru sine = samăn: asemănător(lipseşte din DEX), Santo*: om bun sau de valoare, vine din verbul a fi şi desemnează pe omul care este cu adevărat Buddha şi arhant. Strălucirea lor divină vine din aura pe care o au în jurul capului = Sento/Sinto: Creatorul sau Dumenzeu în religia geţilor(lat. sanctus), sarmani*: călugări care trăiesc cu foarte puţin = sarmani: lipsiţi de surse de existenţă, necăjiţi(bg. siromah), Soma*: zeul lunii unde se duc sufletele morţilor = somna: a dormi(nu este în DEX), sara*: miezul sau esenţa lucrurilor = sara: perioadă de zi, în antichitate ziua începea dimineaţa(lat. sera), sthavira*: ferm, stabil = stavăr: statornicie, fermitate (nu este în DEX), sukha*: fericire = sucă: poftă, ambiţie(nu este în DEX), samana = semăna(lat. similare), saptanahan = saptamîna(lat. septimana), sar = sări(lat. salire), sacîtura = secătură(lat. siccare), sacura = secure(lat. securis), asfant = sfînt(lat. sanctus), smarana = smerenie(sl. sumeriienie), swar,sura = sor,soare(lat. sol), swîrta = soartă(lat. sors), spuz = spumă,spuză(lat. spudia), stîna = stîna(et. necunoscut[), stapana = stăpîn(et. necunoscută), strig = striga(lat. strigare), struguhuri = struguri(et. necunoscută), stupa = stup(lat. stypus), sulica = suliţă(sl. sulica), sumanas = suman,sucman(bg. sucmanu), supa = supa(fr. souper), surata = surată(lat. soror), surpa = surpa(lat. subrupare), sant = sunt(lat. sunt), sag = şag(bg. şega), sîeua = şeaua(lat. sella), sir = şir(et. necunoscută), şira = şiră(lat. sira), şabda = şoaptă(bg. septia), suamunita = şoimăniţă(maghiarul solyom), şuba = şubă (maghiarul suba), şuşana = şuşanea(tr. şişane), taj*: durere = tînj: durere, suferinţă(sl. tonziti), tapa*: flagelare, suferinţă = tapă: tăietură sub formă de pană, făcută în trunchiul unui copac(et. necunoscută), tar = tare(lat. talem), tai = tăia(lat. taliare), tavur = taur(lat. taurus), tarapania = tarapana(tr. tarabhane), taua = tău(maghiarul to), tuaca = teacă(lat. theea), temei = temei(sl. temeli), titthiya*: clevetitori, conspiratori = titii: a şopti(nu este în DEX), tîrta = tîrtiţă(bg. tărtica), tobă = tobă(maghiarul dob), trgovanie = tîrgui(sl. trugovati), ticva = tigvă(bg. ticva), tabar = topor(sl. toporu), trasnai = trăsnăi(sl. tresnonti), trăsati = tresări(fr. tressaillir), tripitaka*: trei coşuri = tri(lat. tres) + pitaka. coşul disciplinei pentru călugări, coşul doctrinelor filozofice, metafizice şi religioase, pitacă: act oficial, poruncă scrisă, scrisoare(sl. pitaku), tulpinia = tulpină(bg. tulpina), tara = ţară(lat. terra), tarc = ţarcă(maghiarul szarka), ţinta = ţintaş(sl. centa), dumbra = umbra(lat. umbra), valîcica = ulcică(lat. ollicella), udaca = uda(lat. udare), udhar = uger(lat. uber), urda = urdă(et. necunoscută), ura = ură(lat. horrire), urdu = urgie(lat. orgia), urias = uriaş(maghiarul orias), urs = urs(lat. ursus), usc = usca(lat. exsucare), vadava = văduva(lat. viduus), vadîmi = vatama(lat. victimaare), vale = vale(lat. vallis), vama = vama(maghiarul vam), vatra = vatră(albanezul vatrë), vepas = văpaie(albanezul vapë), varasati = vărsaţi(lat. versare), vartena = vîrtej(bg. vărtej), vanada = vînat(lat. venare), vîrbu = vîrf(sl. vruhu), varîmi = vîrî(sl. vreti), vîrta = vîrtos(lat. virtus), dzambaiîmi = zîmbi(sl. zonbi), soma = zeamă(lat. zema), sares = zer(et. necunoscută), dziua = ziua(lat. dies), dzurba = zurbă(tr. zorba).
Sorin Olteanu's Thraco-Daco-Moesian Languages Project (TDML)
Site dedicat cercetării ştiinţifice a antichităţilor şi vechilor limbi balcanice
Forum at: http://soltdm.com/forumB/
|The TDM Languages section:|
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|Thesaurus Relictorum Linguarum Thraco-Dacicarum (TRLTD)|
|A-Alm 56 kb|
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Palatala tracă("Spiranta iraţională")
The Thracian Palatal("The Irrational spirant ")
|The Metathesis of -y-|
|Morphology & Syntax|
Principalele arii lingvistice trace după formantul autohton cu sensul "aşezare, cetate"
|The Sources section|
|Principles & Methods|
|Principles & Methods|
|Corpus Inscriptionum ad Thraco-Dacos Pertinentium|
KAGA: an Important Dacian Word
|Note sur IGLR 189(inscr. de Valerius Onesimus; "Legionis VII He(r)culie")|
|Note sur IGLR 191 ('Pro caritate<m>...')|
|Notă despre IGLR 241 (gemma abraxea)|
|Note about a double-edited inscription in Mihailov's IGB|
|Indirect Sources (Manuscripts)|
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|Procopius Caesariensis (text and comments)|
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|Ptolemaeus (balkanic provinces; greek & romanian; some maps)|
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|Dioscurides et Pseudo-Apuleius|
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|Trajan's Column (description and images)|
The terms Centum Group and Satem Group come from the words for the number "one hundred" in a traditional representative language of each group: Latin centum and Avestan satəm. The initial consonant in these two examples comes from the Indo-European palatal consonant, *ḱ, which became in the first case a simple velar, and in the second a sibilant. The Romanian language has a Dacian substratum and the Romanian word for one hundred is "o suta"!
Many people of the ancient world performed rituals concerning the transformation of someone into wild animals including Native Americans. Nonetheless it is true that there could be a link between Cimbri bear warriors and the Romanian tradition consisting in men dressing as bears. Romanians have preserved many Dacian elements and we must be proud of our heritage!
Herodotus thought the Cimmerians and the Thracians closely related, writing that both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced about 700 BC, by invaders from further east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated west and south into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture. The Tauri, the original inhabitants of Crimea, are sometimes identified as a people related to the Thracians.
Thracians inhabited parts of the ancient provinces: Thrace, Moesia, Macedonia, Dacia, Scythia Minor, Sarmatia, Bithynia, Mysia, Pannonia, and other regions on the Balkans and Anatolia. This area extends over most of the Balkans region, and the Getae north of the Danube as far as beyond the Bug.
Premodern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry.
The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry) and Cwmry (for Cumbria), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th century celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists to derive from the Brythonic word combrogos and Proto-Brythonic kom-brogos, meaning "compatriots", and is thus related to its sister language Breton's keñvroad, keñvroiz "compatriot".
The Takla Makan Mummies of China are of Caucasoid origin. These 3,000-year-old people celebrated fertility in Western China, at reproductive fertility rite ceremony sites, where they drew figures virtually identical to 4,000-year-old ones found in Bulgaria and Ukraine. The Horse was first domesticated on the lands which were part of the Thracian home range, the Ukrainian Steppes. Man domesticated horses here between 4500 and 2500 BC. The fierce Cimmerians also originated on these lands. Most likely they where the first ever nomads. The origin of the Cimmerians is obscure. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Thracian or as Iranian, or at least to have had an Iranian ruling class. They probably lived in the area north of the Black Sea.
Cimmerians where responsible for the destruction of the Armenian - Urartu kingdom and the Thracian - Phrygian one. The Cimmerian’s culture influenced the Celts, the Thracians, and the Scythians who defeated and assimilated the Cimmerians in a 30 year war around the 7th or 8th centuries BC.
The Sarmatians where the descendents of the Cimmerians and had their revenge over the Scythians. A large part of the Sarmatians migrated westwards and established near Thracians! In many cases Thracians and Sarmatians allied against common enemies.
Herodotus was probably right about the common origin of Thracians and Cimmerians (Sarmatians) but he was most certainly wrong about the period they decided to migrate in opposite directions! That happened much earlier!
Of course there exists the possibility of more then one migrations...
There are some historians that sustain the Thracian origin of the Pelasgians, Etruscans and Iberians based on the Albanian language related to ancient Thracian and Illyrian, on the legend of Sea People and on the migration of Lydians in Italy. The Albanian language was used to decipher ancient writings found in Lemnos and Imbros islands, Egypt, Italy and Spain.
Some say that Minoans and Argolids where Pelasgians and that the ancient Philistines, Etruscans and Iberians were descendents of the Sea People of Thracian and Semitic origins...
Thracians influenced many cultures including Macedonians and Greeks!
To answer your question there was without a doubt a relation between Thracians and the Germanic Cimbri even if they were closer to Celts regarding lifestyle and warfare.
Thraco-Cimmerians migrated in Cimbri teritory and merged with them. This is proved by testing mithocondrial DNA. Back then Cimbri were Celts and lived near the Alps. Only later they merged with the Germans from the north and took the Etruscan-based runic writing system with them. They are responsible for the Etruscan scripts in Northern Europe.
Many Celtic tribes that lived in Southeastern Europe claimed to be descendends of the Thracians! They were Celto-Thracians!
Distribution of Thraco-Cimmerian finds!
We Romanians have such a great history and we don't even know it!
There are a lot of theories regarding Dacian Language. One is about Dacian connecting with Baltic languages and, flowingly, Baltic tribes:
From wiki http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language)
"A number of scholars have pointed to the many close parallels between Dacian and Thracian placenames and those of the Baltic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_languages) language-zone (Lithuania (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuania), Latvia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latvia) and East Prussia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Prussia), a region where an extinct but well-documented Baltic language, Old Prussian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Prussian), was spoken until it was displaced by German (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language) during the Middle Ages. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language#cite_note-88) These Baltic parallels have enabled linguists to decipher many Dacian and Thracian placenames. Of the 74 Dacian placenames analysed by Duridanov in his 1969 essay, a total of 62 have Baltic cognates, the great majority rated "certain" by Duridanov. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language#cite_note-89) To explain this, Duridanov suggests that proto-Dacian- and proto-Thracian- speakers were in close geographical proximity with proto-Baltic-speakers for a prolonged period in prehistory, perhaps during the period 3000-2000 BC. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language#cite_note-90) Mayer ventures further, suggesting that Dacian and Thracian were what he terms "southern pre-Baltoidic" languages, presumably meaning either proto-Baltic or close descendants of proto-Baltic. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language#cite_note-91) The partially satem characteristics of Thracian and Dacian and their similarities to the Baltic group suggest that an ancestral Thraco-Dacian people was settled in Dacia until part of it migrated into Thrace (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_language#cite_note-92)"
To support this theory I have looked at the list of reconstructed Dacian words and compared them with Lithuanian words (also including dialects and old. Lithuanian words).
As you can see the list of similar words is impressive. Have in mind that I was not checking Latvian words and also Old Prussian. Let see if you can also get other comparisons with Romanian, Albanian or Slavic languages and then we can draw our conclusions.
This article contains a list of reconstructed words of the ancient Dacian language. They have been restored by some linguists from attested Dacian place and personal names (toponyms and anthroponyms) using the comparative linguistic method; or from words believed by some scholars to be Dacian relics in the modern Romanian and Albanian languages.
In the case of words reconstructed from onomastic evidence, the original meanings ascribed to the names in question are assumed from close cognates in other Indo-European languages. However, the results are hypothetical and subject, in some cases, to divergent etymological interpretations. Reconstructions derived from Romanian and Albanian words are based on the disputed theory that early Albanian descends from Daco-Moesian and the separate, mainstream view that Dacian forms the main linguistic substratum of the Romanian language.
In the 1960's, the Bulgarian linguists Vladimir I. Georgiev and Ivan Duridanov used the comparative linguistic method to decipher the meanings of ancient Thracian and Dacian names and to reconstruct Thracian and Dacian words. Duridanov reconstructed ca. 100 Dacian words, and Georgiev about a dozen. Georgiev also reconstructed ca. 180 Thracian words. The reliability of these reconstructions is controversial in academic circles. While the two Bulgarians claim that their results are "certain" or at least "very probable", Polomé (1982) considers that only 20-25 Dacian, and 40-45 Thracian, reconstructed words are reasonably well-founded.
Georgiev argues that one can reliably decipher the meaning of an ancient place-name in an unknown language by comparing it to its successor-names and to cognate place-names and words in other IE languages, both ancient and modern. He gives several examples of his methodology, of which one is summarised here:
The city and river (a tributary of the Danube) in eastern Romania called Cernavodă. In Slavic, the name means "black water". The same town in Antiquity was known as Άξίοπα (Axiopa) or Άξιούπολις (Axioupolis) and its river as the Άξιος (Axios). The working assumption is, therefore, that Axiopa means "black water" in Dacian. According to the known rules of formation of IE composite words, this breaks down as axi = "black" and opa or upa = "water" in Dacian (the -polis element is ignored, as it is a Greek suffix meaning "city"). The assumption is then validated by examining cognate placenames. The axi element is validated by another Danube tributary called the Axios, which is today known as Crna reka (located in Republic of Macedonia: "black river") and by the older Greek name for the Black sea, Άξεινος πόντος (Axeinos pontos, later altered to the euphemism Euxeinos pontos = "Hospitable sea"). The opa/upa element is validated by the Lithuanian cognate upė ("water"). N.B. This etymology is questioned by Russu: Axiopa, a name attested only in Procopius' De Aedificiis, may be a corrupt form of Axiopolis. Even if correct, however, Russu's objection is irrelevant: it does not invalidate the decipherment of the axi- element (which is validated by other toponyms) and the -upa element appears in other placenames e.g. Scenopa (see upa entry in table below).
Russu (1967) attempted to decipher Thracian and Dacian onomastic elements (placenames and personal names) by reference to presumed proto-Indo-European roots-words. But Georgiev considers such a methodology (known as Wurzeletymologien = "root-etymologies"), used in isolation, to be "devoid of scientific value". This is because the root-words themselves are reconstructions, which are in some cases disputed and in all cases subject to uncertainty; multiple root-words can often explain the same word; and the list of proposed IE root-words may not be complete.
There have also been other attempts to reconstruct Dacian words e.g. Reichenkron (1966). The latter assumes that so-called "substratum" words in Romanian (those whose etymology cannot convincingly be ascribed to Romanian's parent-language Latin or to any of the fully documented languages that have influenced Romanian: Slavic, Hungarian, Greek, Turkish etc.) are of Dacian origin. But Polomé considers that such a methodology is not reliable. This is because the process of elimination described cannot exclude the possibility that a word derives from other, unknown or little-known tongues that were at some period current in Dacia or Moesia: for example, possible pre-Indo-European language(s) of the Carpathians or Balkans; or the Illyrian, Thracian and Paeonian languages, spoken alongside Daco-Moesian in the Balkans for at least 2 millennia. Almost half the Romanian substratum words have close cognates in Albanian: since the latter is considered by mainstream scholarship to be a descendant of Illyrian, it is possible that many of the Romanian substratum words are of Illyrian, rather than Dacian, origin. In other words, there is no guarantee that the Romanian "substratum" words are, in reality, of Dacian origin.
The methodology employed by Georgiev and Duridanov has been questioned by other scholars on a number of grounds, including:
Georgiev, Duridanov and Russu concur that the Dacian language constitutes the main pre-Latin substratum of the modern Romanian language. Duridanov also accepts Georgiev's theory that modern Albanian is descended from Daco-Moesian. The latter view, however, is contested by many linguists, especially Albanian, who consider the language a direct descendant of the extinct Illyrian language. Thus, reconstructions based on modern Albanian words, or Romanian substratum words with Albanian cognates, may actually represent ancient Illyrian, rather than Dacian, elements.
There exists a fringe theory (e.g. Paliga) that Illyrian was closely related to Dacian and Thracian, being descended from a proposed Thraco-Illyrian branch of IE. Some of the words cognate between the Romanian substrate and Albanian also have close Baltic cognates, e.g. Latvian mala, "river-bank", which Demiraj lists as a cognate for Romanian mal ("shore") and Albanian mal ("mountain"). Orel considers Lithuanian mažulis and mažas a cognate for Albanian modhullë and modhë, and Romanian mazăre 'pea'. Nevertheless, the Thraco-Illyrian hypothesis lacks evidential basis and has not been accepted by the academic mainstream.
Where such a modern word can be plausibly linked to an Indo-European root and/or modern cognates of similar meaning, a reconstruction of the putative Dacian original has been proposed.
(same meaning unless stated)
(same meaning unless stated)
|*aba, apa||water, river||*ab- ("water", "river")|
It derived from akwa (shift kw>p, gw>b) 
|aqua ("water"), amnis ("stream": Latin: der.< arc. *abnis); ap-(Old Persian "river")||apă (Romanian), upė (Lith.)||RN *Calabaeus, river in Scythia Minor|
|RN Abava (Lith.)||Apos is a Dacian or an Illyrian river name  |
|*akmon||stone, rock||άχμον: "meteorite" (Gr.)PN Άκμονία (Phrygia)||akmuo (Lith.)|
akmuons (Old Latv.)
|PN Άκμονία (Akmonia);|
in R. Dacia between river Thibiscum and Sarmizegethusa
|RN Akmene (Lith.)|
LN Akmenas (Lith.)
PN Άκμονία (Phrygia)
|Acmonia was spelled Augmonia and Agmonia by the Geographer of Ravenna|
|*albo||white||*albho ‘white’||albus (Latin)||alb (Romanian)||PN Alboca (Dacia)|
TN = Albocensi 
|swamp, waterlogged||*olda, *olta ("water", "odorous")||aleti (Lith.: "flooded")|
aluots (Latv.: "source")
ałt (Arm.: "filthy")
|PN Άλδανες (Aldanes): fort near Naissus (Moesia Sup.)|
PN Αλτίνα (Altina): fort nr. Tramarisca
|RN Aldes (Latv.)|
RN Altis (Lith.)
SN Altenes (Latv.)
|The Dacian origin of Aldanes is controversial.|
|*alm-||to flow, to stream||almeti (Lith)||RN Almus Moesia Inferior (river Lom, Bulg); PN Almo, fort at mouth of Lom (Itin. Ant. 219.4)||RN Almė (Lith); LN Ałmji (Latv)|
|*auras, *auro||water, moisture, pool||*uer, *au(e)r 'wet, moisten'||RN Αύρας (Auras)|
|*axi-||black||a-xsei ‘black, dark’ (Iranian) ||PN Άξίοπα town in Scythia Minor, RN Macedonian river (now Vardar)||Axios is considered reflecting the Iranian root a-xsei ‘black, dark’ . Russu argues Axiopa is not a Dacian name, but a corrupt rendition of Axiopolis.|
|*baidas||frightening, repulsive||PN Baetarus|
|*balas,*balos||strong ||*bel ('strong'), ||Sanskrit bala-m- 'force, strong' ||PRN Decebalus|
|*balas||white||*bhel- ('white, bright') |
ancient Greek phalos, phalios, ancient Greek balios "dappled"(<balios is considered a loan from Thracian or Illyrian; it is attested as far back as Homer's Iliad)
|Russ. belyj 'white'|
Lit. bãlas 'white'
Alb. balë "bright", Alb. bal, "piebald dog or horse" 
|*berza||birch-tree||*bhereg "shine" "white" including "birch-tree" ||berzas (Lith.) bereza (Ukr)||PN Bersovia, Berzovia||Here, it is no observable difference between Thracian and Dacian|
|*bur, buris||plentiful, rich, swollen .||*b(e)u-, bh(e)u-(`to swell, inflate, plentiful') .||Old Indian bhū́-ri-ḥ `rich, a lot, immense'.||PRN Burebista and PRN Mucabur , Buridava, Buri (Dacian tribe)|
|*brukla||cranberry||*bhreu-k- ("to spread")||brūkle (Latv.)||TN Breuci? (Thrac. tribe-name)|
(fort in Dacia, W of R. Mureş)
|MN Brùkļu (Latv.)|
SN Bruklynė (Lith.)
|*buta(s)||house, hut, dwelling||bùtas, butà (Lith.)|
buts (Latv.: "small house")
buttan (Old Pr.)
|PN Βούττις (Bouttis)(fort in Dacia Med.)|
PN Boutae (mountain pass into Dacia)
|PN Butani (Latv.)|
PN Butyn (Old Pr.)
RN Butėnių (kaimas) (Lith.)
|The Dacian origin of Bouttis is controversial. Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 84, but Celtic according to Beševliev 1970, p. 99.|
|*čuk-||peak, summit||*ḱu- ("sharp", "pike")||ciucă (Rom.)||PN Thōkyōdis Via|
|*daba||character, nature||PRN Δαβεις|
|*daba||put in order, good ||Dabh (‘arrange, suitable‘)||PRN Dabeis |
|*dava||city, fortress||e.g. PN Rusidava, PN Argedava|
|*degis||burning, shining||dhegʷh (‘to burn‘)||Lit. dègti 'to burn'||PRN Degis|
|*dina||place, area, plain||PN Amlai-dina, PN Dinogetia|
|*dikas||brave or strong, mighty||PRN Decebalus|
|*dita(s)||light (noun), bright (adj.)||*dei-, *di- (to shine, shimmer)||*ditas (Thrac.)||ditë "day" (Alb.)||PRN Ditugentus||PRN Ditte (Old Pr.)|
PN Ditava (Lith.)
|*drasda||thrush (bird)||drazdas (Lith.)||PN Drasdea|
|*dribas, *drigas||wild, restless||dribis, dribulis (Latv.:"a restless man")|
PRN Aurelius Drigissa, a veteran of Legio VII Claudia
|PN Driba (Latv.)|
PN Drigotas (Lith.)
RN Dryzel (Old Latv.)
RN Drigin'a (Russia, of Baltic origin)
|*duia||swamp or mist, drizzle||dujà (Lith.: both meanings)|
dujs (Latv.: "dirty")
|PN Δουιανα (Douiana), fort in Dacia Mediterranea||PN Dujas (Latv.)|
RN Dyja (Russia, prob. Baltic origin)
PN Daujėnai (Lith.)
|The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.|
|*dumas||dark brown||PN Dimum (from *Dumum)|
|*galtis||sheet-ice, frost||gel(ǝ) (‘cold, freeze‘)||PN Galtis|
|*genukla||pasture, meadow||ganyklà (Lith.)|
|PN Γένουκλα (Genucla)|
(fortress of Getan king Zyraxes on Danube)
|SN Dzęnuklis (Latv.)|
|*ger||smart, awake||*ger-4, grēi-(to grow; to awake) ||PRN Gerula|
|*geras||good (-natured), kind||*guer(α)-||gēras (Lith.)||PRN Gerulo|
|PN Gerulių (Lith.)|
RN Gerùlis (Lith.)
|*germas||hot, warm||PN Γέρμαζα|
gillin (Old Pr.)
|PN Gildoba, unknown "Thracian" location where St. Julius was revered||RNs Gilijà, Gilupis, Gỹlė (Lith.)|
LN Gilge (Old Pr.)
LN Dziļaune (Latv.)
|*gira (giria)||forest or mountain||gʷeru (‘pole, pike‘)||Lith. girià 'forest'|
Rus. gora 'mountain'
|*granda||plank||grandà (Lith.: "bridge-plank")|
grandico (Old Pr.)
|PN Γράνδετον (Grandeton), fort near Naissus(Moesia Superior)||PN Grandų káimas (Lith.)|
RNs Gruõds, Gruõdi, Gruõdupis (Latv.)
|The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.|
|*griva||river-bed or river-mouth||? *grava (Thrac.: "valley" or "river-bed")||grĩva (Latv.: "river-mouth")|
greva (Lith.: "river-bed")
|PN Γρίβο (Grivo), fort near Naissus (moesia Sup.)||RN Grýva(Lith.)|
RNs Grīva, Grīvīte (Latv.)
|The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.|
|kaga||sacred, holy||*kʷog(h)- (< *kʷeg(h)-)||kazat′, skazat′ (Sl. "to tell", "to say")||kaga|
|*kapas||hill, slope||PN Καπίδαυα (Capidava)|
|*kapura||hill||PN Capora, in basin of river Tyras (Dniester)|
|*karpa||to cut, stone ||*sker, *ker 'to cut' , .||karpe, karma (*karp-m-) 'stone' (Albanian) ||MN Carpates TN Karpoi, Carpi , .||'Carpathians Mountains', Carpi tribe .|
|*katas||stall, animal enclosure, fish-basin||PN Κάττουζα|
|*keda||chair, stool||kede (Lith.)||PN Cedonia|
|*kerba||swampy ground||PN Cerbatis|
|*kerta||clearing in a wood||kerta (Lith.)||PN Certie|
|*kina||dry place in a swamp||PN Ciniscus|
|*klevas||maple-tree||klevas (Lith.)||PN Clevora|
|*krata||swampy place or pile, heap||PN Κρατίσκαρα||The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.|
|*kurta||grove, glade||PN Κουρτα|
|*lug-||swamp, morass||RN Λύγινος|
|*mal||bank, coast ||mal (Romanian)||PN Dacia Malvensis (Latin Dacia Ripensis)||The Dacian word is preserved in the Romanian word mal 'bank, coast' and in the|
Albanian word mal 'mountain', which correspond to the Lettish word mala 'bank, boundary'
|*maska||pool, puddle||PN Μασκάς|
|*medeka||glade, small wood||PN Μέδεκα||The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.|
|*musas||mould, moss||RN Μουσαίος|
|*nara(s)||river, brook||RN (Rom. from Dac.) Nǎruja|
|*pala, *palma||swamp, bog||palus (Latin)||bala (Lith.)||PN Παλαδεινα; PN Palmatis|
|*pil-||to flow||pila (Lith.)||RN Gilpil|
|*put-||to swell, thicken||puti 'decay' (Lith.)||PN Putina|
|*rabo, rebo||‘to move’ ‘to flow’ ‘be in motion’||*rebh ‘to move’ ‘to flow’ ‘be in motion’ ||raib- (Lith.)||RN Rabon river in Dacia (Jiul?) It was etymologically connected with Arabon (Narabon?) from Pannonia |
|*ramus||peaceful, restful||ramus 'peaceful'(Lith.)||PN Ραμίδαυα (Ramidava)|
|*rō(u)ka||drizzle, fine rain||rukas (Lith.)||PN (from RN) Rhocobae|
|*rus-||to flow||PN Rusidava|
|*san-apa||confluence (of two rivers)||santaka 'confluence of two rivers' upe 'river'(Lith.)||RN Sanpaeus|
|*sausas||dry||saus- (‘dry‘)||Lith. sausas 'dry'||PRN Sausa|
|*sermas||river, river-current||PN Sirmium|
|*skabas||sharp, quick, lively||PRN Σκαβης|
|*skaudus||painful, sad or powerful||skaudus 'painful' (Lith.)||TN Scaugdae|
|*skuia||fir-tree||sk(h)u̯oi̯-, sk(h)u̯i(i̯)- (‘needle, thorn‘)||Latv. skuja 'spruce-needle' skuja (Lith.)||PN Σκουάνες||The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.|
|*skumbras||hill, down||skumbre (Lith.)||PN Σκουμβρο||The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial.|
|*spirus||fast, quick, rapid||RN Πασπίριος|
|*stendas||stiff, rigid, viscose||standus 'stiff' (Lith.)||PN Στένδαι||The Dacian origin of this toponym is controversial. Thracian according to Detschew 1957, p. 479, but Latin according to Beševliev 1970, pp. 94, 114.|
|*suka||tear (ripped), gap||PN Σουκίδαυα (Sucidava)|
|*suras||salty||surus 'salty'(Lith.)||PN Σούρικον|
|*taras||chatterer, gossiper||PRN Tara|
|*tauta||people, nation, country||tauta 'nation' (Lith.)||PRN Tautomedes|
|*tiras||bare, barren, desolate||FN Τίριξις|
|*tut-||blow, smoke||RN Tutupis|
|*upa||river||upe 'river' (Lith.)||PN Scenopa|
|*urda||stream, brook||RN Όρδησσός|
|*vaigas||fast, rapid||PN (from RN) Aegeta|
|*varpa||whirlpool||PN (from RN) Άρπις|
|*visas||fertile, fruitful||visas 'whole' (Lith.)||PN Βισ-δίνα|
|*zalmo-||fur, skin, shield||PRN Ζαλμοδεγικος|
|*zelmas||shoot (of a plant)||PRN Ζαλμοδεγικος|
|*zud-as||careful, precise||PRN Zude|
|*zuras||hot, shining||RN Zyras|
|*zuv-||fish||zuvis 'fish' (Lith.)||Romanian juvete, a species of fish  There are Baltic cognates also, apparently no close Albanian cognate|
N.B. Asterisk (*before word) indicates reconstructed word
PN = `settlement placename
PRN = personal name
TN = tribal name
RN = river/stream/brook name
LN = lake/pool/spring/waters name
SN = swamp name
MN = mountain/hill name
FN = field/meadow name
PLN = plant name
|Please expand this article. Some suggested sources are given below.|
More information might be found in a section of the talk page. (December 2011)
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