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Modern Romanians and South European Y-DNA

 

 

http://www.eupedia.com/forum/showthread.php?t=25220

 Updates and more historic maps at: Y-dna harti istorice reactualizate la:

 http://www.eupedia.com/europe/neolithic_europe_map.shtml

  A new text was introduced at the "Ethnogenesis" chapter, of the article "Romanians": A number of recent genetic studies[1] [2] show a diversity of Y-DNA haplogroups in the Romanian population, as follows (without any of them forming an absolute majority): haplogroup I 22.2%[2](it can be found in most present-day European populations, with greatest density in Scandinavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Sardinia), haplogroup R1a 20.4%[1], haplogroup R1b 13%[1], haplogroup E 7.4%[1], haplogroup J 5.6%[1] and haplogroup G 5.6%[1]. The results of these genetic studies[1] [2] show the same diversity in the Romanian population, as the culture of Romania and the history of Romania show.

 A modern tendency is to relate Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup and Mitochondrial DNA genetic studies with the ethnogenesis of peoples. However, just a small number of works exists today, especially for the area of Eastern Europe, so that one would be enabled to correlate them with the ethnogenesis of Romanians or of any other people, in a fully scientifical accepted way. Usually, such studies are performed using a reduced number of persons, as a sample size, thus presenting limited nation-wide generalized results.

Some results from recent genetic studies may be interpreted in the way that the ethnic contribution of the indigenous Thracian and Daco-Getic population have made a significant contribution to the genes of the modern Romanian population and to the contribution to other Balkan (Albanians, Bulgarians and Greeks) and Italian groups.[3]

Other results may be interpreted as small genetic differences being found among Southeastern European populations and especially those of the DniesterCarpathian region. The observed homogeneity suggests either a very recent common ancestry of all southeastern European populations or strong gene flow between them. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. The results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other.[1][4][5]

Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks.[6]

Haplogroup I2 comprising 22.2% of the Romanian population, can be found in present-day European populations, with greatest density on the Balkans, especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and also in Sardinia).[2]

A possible conclusion of all these studies is that no Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup or Mitochondrial DNA is highly dominant among the sample numbers of Romanians, fact supported by the long and diverse history of Romania.

European R1b peoples are said here to only have arrived via the Danubian corridor from the Black Sea region.

The theory of this path is excellent, but there is another hypothesis that R1b may have divided, and may also have migrated directly from the Mediterranean to populate up into Western Europe, which is supposed to help explain why Europe is so dominated by R1b today, particularly toward the western Atlantic coast.

 

 text at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Mediation_Cabal/Cases/2008-07-02_Romanians

More at:

http://www.eupedia.com/europe/european_y-dna_haplogroups.shtml 

 Human Y-chromosome DNA can be divided in genealogical groups sharing a common ancestor. These are called haplogroups. To know what ancient ethnic group is associated with each haplogroup, please check European Haplogroups : origins, geographic spread and relation to ethnic groups.

 

Ethnicities by haplogroup (simplified - subclades used for specifics)


South-Eastern Europe

Region/Haplogroup
I1
I2a
I2b
R1a
R1b
G2a
J2
J1
E1b1b
T (+ L)
Q
N1c1
Albania
2
12
1.5
9
16
1.5
19.5
2
27.5
1
0
0
Bosnia-Herzegovina
2.5
50
0.5
13.5
4
2
6
1
14.5
2.5
0
0
Bulgaria
3
20
1
18
18
1
20
0
16
1
1
0
Cyprus
0
8
0
3
9
9
37
6
20
5
0
0
Greece
4
10
1.5
12
12
3.5
25
2
27
3
0
0
  • Crete
  • 4
    5
    1
    8
    12
    7
    44
    3
    12
    3
    1
    0
  • Thessaly
  • 3.5
    7
    3.5
    13.5
    10
    8
    19.5
    3
    28
    4
    0
    0
    Macedonia
    10
    18
    0
    13.5
    13.5
    4
    12
    0
    23
    4
    0
    0
    Romania
    1.5
    17.5
    2
    22
    22
    1
    24
    0
    6
    2
    2
    0
    Serbia
    6.5
    34.5
    0.5
    15
    7
    1.5
    6.5
    0.5
    20.5
    3
    1
    2
    Turkey
    1
    4
    0.5
    7.5
    15
    11
    21
    12.5
    11
    2
    2
    4

    European Jews

    Region/Haplogroup
    I
    R1a
    R1b
    G
    J2
    J1
    E
    T
    L
    Q
    N
    Others
    Ashkenazi Jews
    4
    10
    9
    9.5
    19
    19
    20.5
    2
    0.5
    5
    0
    1.5
    Sephardic Jews
    1
    5
    13
    15
    25
    22
    9
    6
    0
    2
    0
    2

    Middle East

    Region/Haplogroup
    I
    R1a
    R1b
    G
    J2
    J1
    E
    T
    L
    Q
    N
    Others
    Armenia
    4
    8
    28
    11
    22
    0
    5
    6
    4
    0
    2
    12
    Azerbaijan
    3
    7
    11
    18
    20
    12
    6
    11
    0
    0
    0
    15
    Georgia
    3.5
    9
    11
    31
    24.5
    2
    4.5
    2.5
    3
    0
    0
    10.5
    Iran
    3
    16.5
    6.5
    10
    12
    10
    4.5
    3
    4
    4
    2.5
    27
    Iraq
    5
    6.5
    11
    3
    27
    31
    11
    7
    3
    0
    0
    0
    Kurdistan (Turkey)
    25
    19.5
    8
    12.5
    7
    0
    2.5
    6.5
    0
    0
    0
    18.5
    Lebanon
    3.5
    3
    6.5
    5
    34
    13
    20
    3.5
    5
    1
    0
    5.5
    Syria
    5
    10
    13.5
    3
    17
    30
    11.5
    5
    3
    0
    0
    2

    Y-DNA haplogroups map of Europe and the Near East by country

    Right-click to zoom in.

    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml#Sources

      http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml

     In human genetics

    Human genetics
    Human genetics describes the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings. Human genetics encompasses a variety of overlapping fields including: classical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, genomics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics,...

     

    Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ

    In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup IJ is a descendant branch of Haplogroup IJK which in turn derives from the greater Haplogroup F. Descendants are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J...

    , itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK.

    Y-DNA Haplogroup I (the letter I, not the number 1) represents nearly one-fifth of the population of Europe
    Europe
    Europe is one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia to its east by the water divide of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus region and the Black Sea to the southeast...

    . It can be found in the majority of present-day European populations; the greatest density to be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina ( or ; Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Bosna i Hercegovina;Serbian Cyrillic: Босна и Херцеговина, is a country in South-Eastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula...

    , Croatia
    Croatia
    Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a country in Central Europe and Southeastern Europe at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain, the Balkans, and the Adriatic Sea. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb...

    , Norway, Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden has land borders with Norway to the west and Finland to the northeast, and water borders with Denmark, Germany, and Poland to the south, and Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and...

    , Serbia
    Serbia
    Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central- and Southeastern Europe, covering the southern lowlands of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

    , Sardinia
    Sardinia
    Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[ ],...

    , Denmark
    Denmark
    Denmark , officially the Kingdom of Denmark together with Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark borders both the Baltic...

     and Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium,...

    . The haplogroup is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose here.

     

    Origins


    The TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) for the I clade
    Clade
    A clade is a group consisting of an organism and all its descendants. In the terms of biological systematics, a clade is a single "branch" on the "tree of life". The idea that such a "natural group" of organisms should be grouped together and given a taxonomic name is central...

     is estimated at 22.2 ka with a confidence interval between 15.3-30.0 ka , placing the Haplogroup I founding event approximately contemporaneous with the Last Glacial Maximum
    Last Glacial Maximum
    The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glacial period, approximately 20,000 years ago. This extreme persisted for several thousand years. It was followed by the Late Glacial Maximum....

     (LGM) from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka. Some speculate the initial dispersion of this population corresponds to the diffusion of the Gravettian
    Gravettian
    thumb|right|Burins similar to these are characteristic diagnostic artifacts typical of the digs attributed to the Gravettian culture.The Gravettian toolmaking culture was a specific archaeological industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic era prevalent before the last glacial epoch...

     culture.

    Note the TMRCA is an estimate of the time of subclade divergence. Rootsi et al. 2004 also note two other dates for a clade, age of STR variation, and time since population divergence. These last two dates are roughly associated, and occur somewhat after subclade divergence. For Haplogroup I, they estimate time to STR variation as 24±7.1 ky and time to population divergence as 23±7.7 ky. With these estimates, they are consistent with Karafet et al. 2008. A recent outlier is Underhill et al. 2007, which calculates the time to subclade divergence of I1 and I2 to be 28.4±5.1 ky. This will need to be explained further, since they further calculate the STR variation age of I1 at only 8.1±1.5 ky.

    Distribution


    Rootsi et al. 2004 suggest that each of the ancestral populations now dominated by a particular subclade of Haplogroup I experienced an independent population expansion immediately after the last glacial maximum
    Last Glacial Maximum
    The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glacial period, approximately 20,000 years ago. This extreme persisted for several thousand years. It was followed by the Late Glacial Maximum....

    .

    Haplogroup I Y-chromosomes have also been found among some populations of the Middle East
    Middle East
    The Middle East is a region that encompasses southwestern Asia and Egypt. In some contexts, the term has recently been expanded in usage to sometimes include Afghanistan and Pakistan, the Caucasus and Central Asia, and North Africa. It's often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far...

    , the Caucasus, and Central Asia, but they are found at frequencies exceeding 10% only among populations of Europe and Asia Minor, particularly among Germanic
    Germanic peoples
    The Germanic peoples are a historical ethno-linguistic group, originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Indo-European Germanic languages, which diversified out of Common Germanic in the course of the Pre-Roman Iron Age.The descendants of these peoples became, and in many...

    , Slavic
    Slavic peoples
    The Slavic Peoples are an ethnic and linguistic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in central and eastern Europe. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of the Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Many settled later in Siberia and Central Asia or emigrated to...

    , Uralic, and Turkic peoples
    Turkic peoples
    The Turks are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, Mongolia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

    , as well as among the Romance
    Romance languages
    The Romance languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family, more precisely of the Italic languages subfamily, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of ancient Rome...

    -speaking populations of France
    France
    France , officially the French Republic , is a state in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from...

    , Romania
    Romania
    Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

    , Moldova
    Moldova
    Moldova , officially the Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east and south. It declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the preceding Moldovan SSR in 1991, as part of the dissolution...

    , and Sardinia
    Sardinia
    Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[ ],...

    , the Albanian
    Albanian language
    Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 7.6 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece...

    -speaking population of Albania
    Albania
    Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in South Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast...

    , Persian-speaking and Pamir-speaking population of Tajiks
    Tajiks
    Tajik is a general designation for a wide range of Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin, with traditional homelands in present-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and southern Uzbekistan...

     and the Greek
    Greek language
    Greek , an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, is the language of the Greeks. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records...

    -speaking population of Greece
    Greece
    Greece , also known as Hellas and officially the Hellenic Republic , is a country in southeastern Europe. Situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece has land borders with Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the east...

    .It is also found among Iranian population of Tehran
    Tehran
    Tehran , is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the 21st largest city in the world....

     and Isfahan (with frequency of 34% and 10% respectively). http://www.eva.mpg.de/genetics/pdf/Caucasus_big_paper.pdf

    Within Europe, several populations are distinguished by having a significantly lower frequency of Haplogroup I than the surrounding populations: these depressions in the frequency of Haplogroup I distinguish the populations of Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic , is a country located in south-central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia — the two largest islands in the...

     and Switzerland
    Switzerland
    Switzerland , officially the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons,...

     from Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium,...

     and Sardinia
    Sardinia
    Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[ ],...

    , Iberia
    Iberian Peninsula
    The Iberian Peninsula is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes modern-day states Portugal, Spain, Andorra, the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and a very small area of France. It is the westernmost of the three major southern European peninsulas—the Iberian, Italian, and...

     from southern France
    France
    France , officially the French Republic , is a state in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from...

     and Normandy
    Normandy
    Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy...

    , Greece
    Greece
    Greece , also known as Hellas and officially the Hellenic Republic , is a country in southeastern Europe. Situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece has land borders with Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the east...

    , Albania
    Albania
    Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in South Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast...

     and the Slavic peoples
    Slavic peoples
    The Slavic Peoples are an ethnic and linguistic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in central and eastern Europe. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of the Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Many settled later in Siberia and Central Asia or emigrated to...

    , and the Baltic Latvians from the Finnic
    Finnic peoples
    The Finnic peoples were a historic linguistic group who spoke Finnic languages: the Baltic Finns, who lived near the Baltic Sea, the Volga Finns, who lived near the Volga River, and the Permians, who lived in north-central Russia. The major modern representatives of the Baltic Finns who have...

     Estonians
    Estonians
    Estonians are a Finnic people closely related to the Finns and inhabiting, primarily, the country of Estonia. The Estonians speak a Finno-Ugric language, known as Estonian...

    . In all these areas, Haplogroup I populations are small relative to the dominant haplogroups in Europe (R1b in Western Europe, R1a1 in Eastern Europe, and N in Northeastern Europe).

    Medical implications


    Y-DNA haplogroup I has been researched in connection with HIV and AIDS progression. The research resulted in the finding that haplogroup I in general, and no specific subclade, had accelerated progression (in Y haplogroup I individuals) from HIV to AIDS. Suppression therapy also had a diminished effect on such individuals.

    Subgroups


    The subclade
    Subclade
    In genetics, subclade is a term used to describe a subgroup of a subgenus or haplogroup. It is commonly used today in describing genealogical DNA tests of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups....

    s of Haplogroup I with their defining mutations:
    • I-M170 (L41, M170, M258, P19, P38, P212, U179)
      • I1-M253
        Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup I1 is a Y chromosome haplogroup occurring at greatest frequency in Scandinavia, associated with the mutations identified as M253, M307, P30, and P40. These are known as single nucleotide polymorphisms . It is a subclade of Haplogroup I. Before a reclassification in...

         (L75, L80, L81, L118, L121, L123, L125, M253, M307.1/P203.1, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111) Typical of populations of Scandinavia
        Scandinavia
        Scandinavia is a region in northern Europe that includes Denmark and two of the Scandinavian Peninsula's nations, Norway and Sweden. The third nation on the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, is sometimes considered a Scandinavian country in common English usage, and Iceland, the Faroe Islands and...

         and Northwest Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eastern Europe
        Eastern Europe
        Eastern Europe is a region lying in the Eastern part of Europe. The term is highly context-dependent and even volatile, as there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

        • I1a-M21 (M21)
        • I1b-M227 (M227) Appears to be limited to a marginally low frequency of approximately 1% among Slavic
          Slavic peoples
          The Slavic Peoples are an ethnic and linguistic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in central and eastern Europe. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of the Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Many settled later in Siberia and Central Asia or emigrated to...

           and Uralic peoples of Eastern Europe
          Eastern Europe
          Eastern Europe is a region lying in the Eastern part of Europe. The term is highly context-dependent and even volatile, as there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

          ; also detected in a single Lebanese
          Lebanon
          Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names, is also used, but less frequently. , is a country on the...

           man
          • I1b1-M72 (M72)
        • I1c-P259 (P259/M507)
        • I1d-L22 (L22/S142)
          • I1d1-P109 (P109)
        • I1e-S79 (S79)
      • I2-M438
        Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup I2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. Until 2008, it was known as Haplogroup I1b.-Subclades:Note: The systematic subclade names have changed several times in recent years, and they are likely to change again, as new markers are discovered which clarify the sequential...

         (L68, M438/P215/S31)
        • I2a-P37.2 (P37.2)
          • I2a1-M26 (L158, L159, M26) Typical of the population of the so-called "archaic zone" of Sardinia
            Sardinia
            Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[ ],...

            ; also found at low frequencies among populations of Southwest Europe, particularly in Castile
            Castile (historical region)
            A former kingdom, Castile gradually merged with its neighbors to become the Crown of Castile and later the Kingdom of Spain with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre...

            , Béarn
            Béarn
            Béarn is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, the principality of Bidache, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms in the southwest the...

            , and the Basque Country
            • I2a1a-M161 (M161) Very rare (1 in Puerto Rico)
            • I2a1b-L160
          • I2a2-M423 (L178, M423)
            • I2a2a-L69.2 (L69.2(=T)/S163.2) Typical of the Balkan populations, especially the populations of Bosnia and Herzegovina
              Bosnia and Herzegovina
              Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina ( or ; Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Bosna i Hercegovina;Serbian Cyrillic: Босна и Херцеговина, is a country in South-Eastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula...

               and Croatia
              Croatia
              Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a country in Central Europe and Southeastern Europe at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain, the Balkans, and the Adriatic Sea. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb...

              ; also found with high frequency in Moldavia
              Moldavia
              Moldavia is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river...

               and Romania
              Romania
              Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

               and high haplotype diversity values, but lower overall frequency, among the populations of Slovakia
              Slovakia
              The Slovak Republic is a state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is a landlocked country bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

               and the Czech Republic
              Czech Republic
              The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country borders Poland to the northeast, Germany to the west and northwest, Austria to the south and Slovakia to the east. The Czech Republic has been a member of NATO since 1999 and of the European Union since 2004...

              • I2a2a1-P41.2 (P41.2/M359.2) Very rare (2 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1 in Turkey, 1 in England and 1 in Croatia)
            • I2a2b-L161 low frequency in Ireland
              Ireland
              Ireland is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island in the world. It lies to the northwest of continental Europe and is surrounded by hundreds of islands and islets. To the east of Ireland is Great Britain, separated from it by the Irish Sea...

               and Great Britain
              Great Britain
              Great Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island. With a population of about 60.0 million people in mid-2009, it is the third most populated island on Earth. Great Britain is surrounded by...

        • I2b-M436 (L35, L37, M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32)
          • I2b1-M223 (L34, L36, L59, M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117) Occurs at a moderate frequency among populations of Northwest Europe, with a peak frequency in the region of Lower Saxony
            Lower Saxony
            Lower Saxony lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the sixteen states of Germany. In rural areas Northern Low Saxon, a dialect of Low German, is still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining....

             in central Germany
            Germany
            Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium,...

            ; minor offshoots appear in Moldavia
            Moldavia
            Moldavia is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river...

             and Russia
            Russia
            Russia , also officially known as the Russian Federation , is a state in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

             (especially around Vladimir
            Vladimir Oblast
            Vladimir Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the medieval Russian capital Vladimir, which is located 190 km to the east from the present-day capital, Moscow. For detailed information about the area's medieval history, see Zalesye and Vladimir-Suzdal...

            , Ryazan
            Ryazan Oblast
            Ryazan Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . It has an area of 39,600 km² and a population of 1,227,910...

            , Nizhny Novgorod
            Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
            Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod...

            , and the Republic of Mordovia
            Mordovia
            The Republic of Mordovia , also known as Mordvinia, is a federal subject of Russia .-Geography:...

            )
            • I2b1a-M284 (M284) Generally limited to a low frequency in Great Britain
              Great Britain
              Great Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island. With a population of about 60.0 million people in mid-2009, it is the third most populated island on Earth. Great Britain is surrounded by...

              • I2b1a1-L126 (L126/S165, L137/S166)
            • I2b1b-M379 (M379)
            • I2b1c-P78 (P78)
            • I2b1d-P95 (P95)
          • I2b2-L38 (L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1)


    Note that the naming of some of the subgroups has changed, as new markers have been identified, and the sequence of mutations has become clearer..

    I-M170


    The composite subclade I contains individuals directly descended from the earliest members of Haplogroup I, bearing none of the subsequent mutations which identify the remaining named subclades.

    Several haplogroup I-M170 individuals who do not fall in known subclades, with some of the greatest Y-STR diversity, have significantly been found among the populations of Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states...

     (8/741), Adygea (2/138), and Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq , officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert.Iraq is bordered by Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, Turkey to the...

     (1/176),even though as a whole Haplogroup I-M170 occurs at only very low frequencies among modern populations of the Middle East and Caucasus. This is consistent with the belief that the haplogroup first appeared in that region. Overall, the highest frequencies of Haplogroup I-M170 appear to be found among the Andalusians
    Andalusian people
    The Andalusians are the people of the southern region in Spain. They are generally not considered an ethnically distinct people because they lack two of the most important markers of distinctiveness: their own language and an awareness of a presumed common origin. Andalusian Spanish is said to be a...

     (3/103), French
    French people
    French people can refer to:* The legal residents and citizens of France, regardless of ancestry.* People whose ancestors lived in France or the area that later became France.-Legal residents and citizens:...

     (4/179), Slovenians (2/55), and the Saami (1/35).http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181996&rendertype=table&id=TB1

    I-M253


    Haplogroup I-M253 (M253, M307, P30, P40) displays a very clear frequency gradient, with a peak frequency of approximately 35% among the populations of southern Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe occupying the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.8 million. It is one of the most...

    , southwestern Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden has land borders with Norway to the west and Finland to the northeast, and water borders with Denmark, Germany, and Poland to the south, and Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and...

    , and Denmark
    Denmark
    Denmark , officially the Kingdom of Denmark together with Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark borders both the Baltic...

    , and rapidly decreasing frequencies toward the edges of the historically Germanic
    Germanic peoples
    The Germanic peoples are a historical ethno-linguistic group, originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Indo-European Germanic languages, which diversified out of Common Germanic in the course of the Pre-Roman Iron Age.The descendants of these peoples became, and in many...

    -influenced world. A notable exception is Finland
    Finland
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden on the west, Norway on the north and Russia on the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside in...

    , where frequency in West Finns is up to 40%, and in certain provinces like Satakunta more than 50%.

    Outside Fennoscandia
    Fennoscandia
    Fennoscandia and Fenno-Scandinavia are geographic and geological terms used to describe the Scandinavian Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Finland...

    , distribution of Haplogroup I-M253 is closely correlated with that of Haplogroup I-M436; but among Scandinavians (including both Germanic and Uralic peoples of the region) nearly all the Haplogroup I Y-chromosomes are I-M253. Another characteristic of the Scandinavian I-M253 Y-chromosomes is their rather low haplotype
    Haplotype
    A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles at different places on the chromosome that are transmitted together...

     diversity (STR diversity): a greater variety of Haplogroup I-M253 Y-chromosomes has been found among the French
    French people
    French people can refer to:* The legal residents and citizens of France, regardless of ancestry.* People whose ancestors lived in France or the area that later became France.-Legal residents and citizens:...

     and Italians
    Italian people
    The Italian people are a people that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people of...

    , despite the much lower overall frequency of Haplogroup I-M253 among the modern French and Italian populations.

    I-M438


    I-M423

    Haplogroup I-M423 is the most frequent Y-chromosome Haplogroup I in Central and Eastern European populations, reaching its peak in the Western Balkans, most notably in Dalmatia
    Dalmatia
    Dalmatia is a historical region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It spreads between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. The hinterland, the Dalmatian Zagora, ranges from fifty kilometers in width in the north to just a few kilometers in the south...

     (50-60%) and Bosnia-Herzegovina (up to 75%), especially in the Croat population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A greater variance of this group has been found in Ireland and Great Britain, but overall frequency is very low (2-3%). Haplogroup I-M423 is virtually absent in Fennoscandia
    Fennoscandia
    Fennoscandia and Fenno-Scandinavia are geographic and geological terms used to describe the Scandinavian Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Finland...

    , Western and Southwestern Europe.
    I-M26

    Haplogroup I-M26 is notable for its strong presence in Sardinia. Haplogroup I comprises approximately 40% of all patrilines among the Sardinians, and I-M26 is the predominant type of I among them.

    Haplogroup I-M26 is practically absent east of France
    France
    France , officially the French Republic , is a state in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from...

     and Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic , is a country located in south-central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia — the two largest islands in the...

    ., while it is found at low but significant frequencies outside of Sardinia in the Balearic Islands
    Balearic Islands
    The Balearic Islands are an archipelago in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula....

    , Castile
    Castile (historical region)
    A former kingdom, Castile gradually merged with its neighbors to become the Crown of Castile and later the Kingdom of Spain with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre...

    , the Basque Country
    Basque Country (historical territory)
    The Basque Country is a European cultural region home to the Basque people in the western Pyrenees that spans the border between France and Spain on the Atlantic coast....

    , the Pyrenees
    Pyrenees
    The Pyrenees are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain...

    , southern and western France, and parts of the Maghreb
    Maghreb
    The Maghreb , also rendered Maghrib, refers to five countries located in North Africa. It is an Arabic word, literally meaning "place of sunset" or "the west"...

     in North Africa
    North Africa
    North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes seven countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western...

    , Great Britain
    Great Britain
    Great Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island. With a population of about 60.0 million people in mid-2009, it is the third most populated island on Earth. Great Britain is surrounded by...

    , and Ireland
    Ireland
    Ireland is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island in the world. It lies to the northwest of continental Europe and is surrounded by hundreds of islands and islets. To the east of Ireland is Great Britain, separated from it by the Irish Sea...

    . Haplogroup I-M26 appears to be the only subclade of Haplogroup I found among the Basques
    Basque people
    The Basques as an ethnic group primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country , a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-eastern Spain and south-western France.The Basques are known in the...

    , but appears to be found at somewhat higher frequencies among the general populations of Castile
    Castile (historical region)
    A former kingdom, Castile gradually merged with its neighbors to become the Crown of Castile and later the Kingdom of Spain with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre...

     in Spain and Béarn
    Béarn
    Béarn is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, the principality of Bidache, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms in the southwest the...

     in France than among the population of ethnic Basques. The M26 mutation is found in native males inhabiting every geographic region where megaliths may be found, including such far-flung and culturally disconnected regions as the Canary Islands, the Balearic Isles, Corsica, Ireland, and Sweden.

    The distribution of M26 also mirrors that of the Atlantic Bronze Age
    Atlantic Bronze Age
    The so called Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia and the British Isles. It is marked by the economic and cultural exchange of some surviving aboriginal cultures that would...

     cultures, which indicates a potential spread via the obsidian
    Obsidian
    Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly without crystal growth...

     trade or a regular maritime exchange of some of metallurgical products.

    I-M436



    The distribution of Haplogroup I-M436 (M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32) is closely correlated to that of Haplogroup I1 except in Fennoscandia
    Fennoscandia
    Fennoscandia and Fenno-Scandinavia are geographic and geological terms used to describe the Scandinavian Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Finland...

    , which suggests that it was probably harbored by at least one of the Paleolithic refuge populations that also harbored Haplogroup I-M253; the lack of correlation between the distributions of I-M253 and I-M436 in Fennoscandia may be a result of Haplogroup I-M436's being more strongly affected in the earliest settlement of this region by founder effect
    Founder effect
    In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. It was first fully outlined by Ernst Mayr in 1952, using existing theoretical work by those such as Sewall...

    s and genetic drift
    Genetic drift
    Genetic drift or allelic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant in a population due to random sampling. The alleles in the offspring are a sample of those in the parents, and chance has a role in determining whether a given individual survives and reproduces...

     due to its rarity, as Haplogroup I-M436 comprises less than 10% of the total Y-chromosome diversity of all populations outside of Lower Saxony
    Lower Saxony
    Lower Saxony lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the sixteen states of Germany. In rural areas Northern Low Saxon, a dialect of Low German, is still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining....

    . Haplogroup I-M436 has been found in over 4% of the population only in Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium,...

    , the Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located in North-West Europe and with territories in the Caribbean. It is a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy...

    , Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, as well as those of several other major international organizations such as NATO...

    , Denmark
    Denmark
    Denmark , officially the Kingdom of Denmark together with Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark borders both the Baltic...

    , England (not including Cornwall), Scotland
    Scotland
    Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

    , and the southern tips of Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden has land borders with Norway to the west and Finland to the northeast, and water borders with Denmark, Germany, and Poland to the south, and Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and...

     and Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe occupying the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.8 million. It is one of the most...

     in Northwest Europe; the provinces of Normandy
    Normandy
    Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy...

    , Maine
    Maine
    Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, New Hampshire to the southwest, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the northwest and New Brunswick to the northeast. Maine is the northern and easternmost portion...

    , Anjou, and Perche
    Perche
    Perche is a former province of northern France extending over the départements of Orne, Eure, Eure-et-Loir and Sarthe.-Geography:Perche is bounded by Normandy to the north and west, Maine to the south-west, Vendomois and Dunois to the south, Beauce to the east and Thimerais to the north-east.The...

     in northwestern France
    France
    France , officially the French Republic , is a state in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from...

    ; the province of Provence
    Provence
    Provence is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean adjacent to Italy. It is part of the administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur...

     in southeastern France; the regions of Tuscany
    Tuscany
    Tuscany is a region in Central Italy. It has an area of 22,990 square kilometres and a population of about 3.6 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence....

    , Umbria
    Umbria
    Umbria is a region of modern central Italy. Central Italian is currently spoken there.- Geography :Umbria is bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south...

    , and Latium
    Latium
    Lazio is a region of west central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche to the north, Abruzzo and Molise to the east, Campania to the south, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west...

     in Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic , is a country located in south-central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia — the two largest islands in the...

    ; and Moldavia
    Moldavia
    Moldavia is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river...

     and the area around Russia's Ryazan Oblast
    Ryazan Oblast
    Ryazan Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . It has an area of 39,600 km² and a population of 1,227,910...

     and Republic of Mordovia
    Mordovia
    The Republic of Mordovia , also known as Mordvinia, is a federal subject of Russia .-Geography:...

     in Eastern Europe. One subclade of Haplogroup I-M436, namely I-M284, has been found almost exclusively among the population of Great Britain
    Great Britain
    Great Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island. With a population of about 60.0 million people in mid-2009, it is the third most populated island on Earth. Great Britain is surrounded by...

    , which has been taken to suggest that the clade may have a very long history in that island. It is notable, however, that the distributions of Haplogroup I-M253 and Haplogroup I-M436 seem to correlate fairly well with the extent of historical influence of Germanic peoples
    Germanic peoples
    The Germanic peoples are a historical ethno-linguistic group, originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Indo-European Germanic languages, which diversified out of Common Germanic in the course of the Pre-Roman Iron Age.The descendants of these peoples became, and in many...

    , although the punctual presence of both haplogroups at a low frequency in the area of the historical regions of Bithynia
    Bithynia
    Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine .-Description:...

     and Galatia
    Galatia
    Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace , who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC...

     in Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states...

     rather suggests a connection with the ancient Gauls
    Gauls
    The Gauls were a Celtic people living in Gaul, the region roughly corresponding to what is now France and Belgium, from the Iron Age through the Roman period. They mostly spoke the Continental Celtic language called Gaulish....

     of Thrace
    Thrace
    Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

    , several tribes of which are recorded to have immigrated to those parts of Anatolia at the invitation of Nicomedes I of Bithynia.

    Haplogroup I-M436 also occurs among approximately 1% of Sardinia

     

     

    DNA Timeline

      DNA Timeline

    Time: approx 10,000 years ago
    Place: Eastern Europe
    The founder of Haplogroup R1a lived 10,000 years ago in the Eurasian steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas (the Ukraine or Southern Russia). It is associated with Kurgan culture and reflects an early Indo-European ethnicity. Kurgans were characteristic of Bronze Age nomadic peoples of the steppes, from the Altay Mountains to the Caucasus and Romania.

    Today, Haplogroup R1a is found in the Slavic populations of Eastern Europe, Northern Central Asia and India. The highest frequency of this haplogroup is Eastern Europe with highest levels in Poland and Russia. It is also widespread in Turkic speaking populations and eastern European Fino-Ugric and Slavic speakers. 35% of all people in the Czech Republic belong to Haplogroup R1a.

    Haplogroup R1a is directly linked to the spread of Indo-European languages, including English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, several Indian languages such as Bengali and Hindi.

    Haplogroup R1a is associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, with highest frequency Northern India. Haplogroup R1a can be found in Indians of diverse linguistic and geographic affiliation. It is found at high concentrations in Punjab, but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe, and is also present in 35% of the Hindi speaking population. (Excerpted verbatim from my Genebase results)

    Haplogroup R
    Time: approx 30,000 years ago
    Place: Europe
    Another important branch of Haplogroup P is Haplogroup R. Individuals belonging to Haplogroup R carry the distinct Haplogroup P marker M45, but are further distinguished by an additional marker in their Y-DNA called M173. The presence of the M173 marker is unique to all individuals who descended from this line and can be confirmed with SNP testing.

    The man who founded Haplogroup R lived in North West Asia approximately 30,000 years ago. His descendents migrated into Europe and many regions of Europe.

    Haplogroup R has several major sub-branches:

    •R1a, which is very common among the Slavic and Scandinavian populations;
    •R1b, which is associated with the Cro-Magnon people of western Europe; and
    •R2, which is found mainly in India. (Excerpted verbatim from my Genebase results)
    Haplogroup P
    Time: approx 35,000 years ago
    Place: Northern Eurasia
    Haplogroup P is a branch that stems from Haplogroup K. Individuals belonging to Haplogroup P carry the Y-DNA M9 marker of Haplogroup K, and are further characterized by an additional marker in their Y-DNA called M45. The presence of the M45 marker is unique to all individuals who descended from this line and can be confirmed with SNP testing.

    This haplogroup arose approximately 40,000 years ago, north of the Hindu Kush, a mountain range in Afghanistan and northern areas of Pakistan that forms the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains. These ancestors migrated north of the Hindu Kush into Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and southern Siberia.

    Today, Haplogroup P is an ancient haplogroup which is seldom found as an undifferentiated Haplogroup (very few people today belong to Haplogroup P, most belong to the major branches which arose from descendents of Haplogroup P, including Haplogroups Q and R). Haplogroup P is significant because it is the direct ancestor of Haplogroups Q and R. Haplogroup Q is the haplogroup of the majority of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Haplogroup R is the founding haplogroup of a majority of Europeans. Haplogroup P can be found in low levels in India, Pakistan, China, and Tibet. (Excerpted verbatim from my Genebase results)

    Haplogroup K
    Time: approx 40,000 years ago
    Place: Southwestern Asia
    One of the most significant branches of Haplogroup F from the middle east is Haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is characterized by the M89 and M213 markers of Haplogroup F, but also carry an additional marker in the Y-DNA called M9. The presence of the M9 marker is unique to all individuals who descended from this line and can be confirmed with SNP testing.

    This haplogroup is an important branch which first arose in the middle east approximately 40,000 years ago. These early ancestors migrated eastward towards the Pamir Mountains in southwestern Asia. The Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges. These mountains are centered in the Tajikistani region of Gorno-Badakhshan and are considered one of the world's highest mountains. The geography of the Pamir Mountains caused the descendents of Haplogroup K to split up and migrate in different routes, some into Asia, others into Europe and still others into India.

    The majority of the people living in the world today trace their roots back to this haplogroup. Descendents of Haplogroup K are the patrilineal ancestors of most of the people living today in the Northern hemisphere, including most Europeans, many Indians, and almost all Asians. Haplogroups L to R are all descendents of Haplogroup K.

    Today, the ancient undifferentiated Haplogroup K peoples are found mainly in the Middle East and Ethiopia. Its current existence in low levels in Ethiopia is due to back migration of Asian Y-chromosomes into sub-Saharan Africa thousands of years ago.

    A subgroup of Haplogroup K is Haplogroup K2. Haplogroup K2 is present at a low levels throughout Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Thomas Jefferson is a famous member of Haplogroup K2.

    Sub-groups (aka subclades) of Haplogroup K include K* and K1 to K5. These sub-groups are found at low frequencies in various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific. (Excerpted verbatim from my Genebase results.)

    Haplogroup F

    Time: approx 50,000 years ago
    Place: Middle East
    Descendents of the Haplogroup F branch are distinguished by markers in their Y-DNA called M89 and M213. The presence of the M89 and M213 markers are unique to all individuals who descended from this line and can be confirmed with SNP testing.

    Haplogroup F is an important ancient haplogroup whose descendents are responsible for forming the majority of the civilizations in the world today. The founder of Haplogroup F lived 40,000 to 60,000 years ago in modern day Middle East and his descendents became the founders of Haplogroups G through to R. Descendents of Haplogroups G to R represent more than 90% of the world's current population.

    Today, the original undifferentiated ancient Haplogroup F line is localized mainly to the Middle East. Descendents of Haplogroup F are almost absent in Sub-Saharan Africa, further supporting the theory that Haplogroup F formed shortly after its ancestors migrated out of Africa. (Excerpted verbartim from Genebase.)


    Haplogroup CR
    Time: approx 55,000 years ago
    Place: Northeast Africa
     
    Individuals belonging to Haplogroup CR are distinguished by a marker in their Y-DNA called M168. The presence of this marker can be confirmed with SNP testing.

    Haplogroup CR split off from haplogroup A 55,000 years ago, probably originating in North East Africa. This haplogroup is the root of all living human Y-DNA haplogroups except for haplogroup A and haplogroup B.

    The last groups of people from this haplogroup eventually migrated out of Africa and populated around the world. (Excerpted verbatim from Genebase).

    Haplogroup BR
    Time: approx 60,000 years ago
    Place: Northeast Africa
    Individuals belonging to Haplogroup BR are distinguished by several markers in their Y-DNA: SRY10831.1 (SRY1532), M42, M94, and M139. The presence of these markers can be confirmed with SNP testing.

    Haplogroup BR split off from haplogroup A 55,000 to 60,000 years ago, probably originating in North East Africa. This haplogroup is the roo;t of all living human Y-DNA haplogroups except for haplogroup A. (Excerpted from Genebase.)

    Y-Chromsomal Adam
    Time: Lived approx 100,000 years ago
    Place: Africa
    Y-Chromsomal Adam is the most recent common patrilineal ancestor (MRCA) of all humans living today. His Y-DNA was passed down from father to sons over the past 100,000 years and all males living today can trace their Y-DNA back to the common Y-DNA type of the Y-Chromosomal Adam. He lived approximately 100,000 years ago in what is now Ethiopia.

    Today, the Y-DNA of Africans fall into one of several major Haplogroups: A and B. Each haplogroup is associated with a different ancestral lineage.

    Phylogenetic Tree
    This is the phylogenetic tree of all known human Y-DNA haplogroups that exist today. Scroll down to locate your confirmed Y-DNA haplogroup, or learn more about your Y-DNA haplogroup by switching to the other two tabs: Migration Map and About.

    Our Y-DNA, which is passed down from a father to son, shows that all people living today shared a common male ancestor who lived in Africa over 100,000 years ago. He is often termed the "Y-Chromosomal Adam".

    The Y-DNA phylogenetic tree has approximately 19 main branches "Y-DNA haplogroups" classified by the letters "A to R". Each Y-DNA haplogroup has many further sub-branches (subclades), classified by numbers and letters, i.e. R1b1a, R1b1b, R1b1c, etc. All people living today have descended from one of the main branches of the human Y-DNA phylogenetic tree.

    Find your haplogroup on the tree and see how you are connected to all people living today on your paternal line. (Source: Genebase)

    Special Credit to the sites from which I drew this information, sometimes verbatim:

    Genebase

    23andme

    Ancestry.com

    Sorenson Molecular Genomics

    Family Tree DNA

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