The Gaetuli was the Romanised name of a Berber tribal group inhabiting present-day southern Algeria. It is mostly desert. Parts of the Atlas Mountains occupy its northwestern tip. The Zenata are considered Gaetulian.
Eastern Hemisphere in 300 AD, showing Gaetulia and neighboring regions.
This was the name given to an ancient district in North Africa, which in the usage of Roman writers comprised the nomadic tribes of the southern slopes of Mount Aures and the Atlas, as far as the Atlantic, and the oases in the northern part of the Sahara. They were always distinguished from the black (Subsaharan) Africans to the south, and beyond doubt belonged to the same Berber race which formed the basis of the population of Numidia. The tribes to be found there at the present day are probably of the same race, and retain the same nomadic habits; and it is possible that they still bear in certain places the name of their Gaetulian ancestors (see Vivien-St.-Martin, Le Nerd de l'Afrique, 1863). A few only seem to have mingled with the Blacks of the Sahara, if we may thus interpret Ptolemy's allusion to Melano-Gaetuli (~. 6. 5.). They were noted for the rearing of horses, and according to Strabo had 100,000 foals in a single year. They were clad in skins, lived on meat and milk, and the only manufacture connected with their name is that of the purple dye which became famous from the time of Augustus onwards, and was made from the purple shell fish Murex brandaris found on the coast, apparently both in the Syrtes and on the Atlantic.
We first hear of this people in the Jugurthine War (111-106 B.C.), when, as Sallust tells us, they did not even know the name of Rome. They took part with Jugurtha against Rome; but when we next hear of them they are in alliance with Caesar against Juba I (Bell. Afr. 32). In 25 B.C. Augustus seems to have given a part of Gaetulia to Juba II, together with his kingdom of Mauretania, doubtless with the object of controlling the turbulent tribes; but the Gaetulians rose and massacred the Roman residents, and it was not till a severe defeat had been inflicted on them by Cornelius Lentulus (who thus acquired the surname Gaetulicus) in 6 A.D. that they submitted to the king. After Mauritania became a Roman province in 40 A.D., the Roman governors made frequent expeditions into the Gaetulian territory to the south, and the official view seems to be expressed by Pliny (v. 4. 30) when he says that all Gaetulia as far as the Niger River and the Ethiopian frontier was reckoned as subject to the Empire. How far this represents the fact is not clear; but inscriptions prove that Gaetulians served in the auxiliary troops of the empire, and it may be assumed that the country passed within the sphere of Roman influence, though hardly within the pale of Roman civilization.
- ^ Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de la province, Société archéologique
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Zenata)
- for the article about the commune see Zenata, Algeria
Zenati were an ethnic group of North Africa , who were technically an Eastern Berber group and who are found in Tunisia , Algeria and Rif mountains.
According to the French historians Emile Felix Gautier and Gabriel Camps, Zenata tribes entered in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia from the east of Northern Africa in pre-Islamic times and grouped themselves with the tribes of Maghrawa, Miknasa, and Banu Ifran, etc....
According to Ibn Khaldoun, an Arabic historian of the 14th century, there were Zenata tribes dispatched in all North Africa (current Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria), and some of them may have also lived in modern Egypt as well.
According to Ibn Khaldoun, the Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda etc...He added that these tribes, traditionally nomads, were concentrated in Middle Maghreb (part of the current Algeria); it's why he called " Middle Maghreb " home of Zenata.
The hypothesis of Ibn Khaldoun about the origin of this Berber group or ethnicity is not widely accepted by the modern historians like Emile Felix Gautier or Gabriel Camps.
About the origin of this Berber group the Arabic historian Ibn Hazm have supposed an origin from Yemen, but the hypothesis is shown by some historians like a political hypothesis.
Zenata would come from Gaetulia (Berber people group from North Africa)  
According to some hypothesis, yet to prove, some of berber tribes called Garamantes would be also probably Zenata 
According to the very discussed hoypthesis of Ibn Khaldoun, Madghacen was the Patriarch of Zenata.
The oldest mausoleum (between -12 at -3 B.C) in current Algeria is Madghacen mausoleum,(Madghis town near Batna). Madghacen was probably a zenata king of Numidia  
Their varieties of Berber, collectively termed Zenati, are spread over a wide area; for this reason, several languages are termed "Zenati" or in some cases are spoken by people who call themselves Zenata.
Among these are Beni Snassen (or Ait Iznassen in Tamazight), a tribe that lives in Northern Morocco and Algeria, mostly in the mountains near Berkane called the Beni Snassen mountains; Sened (now extinct), and some Saharan oasis languages.
The Zenata are also recalled in several placenames across the Maghreb, notably Oued Zenati in Algeria. Also a GM
The Egyptians named the Berbers closest to them Libu,and those right behind them in the area where later the Zenati came from, the Meshwesh.
In the 8th century most Berber and Zenata were Kharijites and took part in the Maysara revolt against Umayyad rule. The last Kharijite rebellion was in the 10th century under Abu Yazid, and was defeated by the Fatimids.
During the 10th century some Zenata from Ifriqiya were predominantly allied with the Caliphate of Cordoba, which fought for control of a aprt of current Morocco with the Fatimids. In the process the Zenata were pushed out of Morocco by the Sanhaja tribe, allies of the Fatimids.
In the 13th century the Zenata regained political importance with the Abdalwadids (Zayyanids of Tlemcen) in western Algeria.
In the 15th century, in Morocco, the Marinids and the Wattasids ruled the country.
- ^ Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de la province ... De Société archéologique
- ^ http://books.google.fr/books?id=NpoEAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA131&dq=g%C3%A9tule+aur%C3%A8s&lr=
- ^ 
- ^ Ibn khaldun, History of berbers
- ^ The past of Africa's dark centuries Nordles Emile De Felix Gautier
- ^ http://books.google.fr/books?id=q44cAAAAMAAJ&q=madghis&dq=madghis&pgis=1
WEST AFRICA & THE ATLANTIC IN ANTIQUITY
Probably a salient fact of what has been defined as the Aqualithic by John Sutton is just how wet what is now the arid Sahara once was. The earliest signs of humankind seem shown when the Wikipedia (online) on "Prehistoric Central North Africa" tells us tools of the east African variety named by the Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) were found at Ain el-Hanech in the Sahara. These Olduwan tools are given a guesstimated age of 2/1.5 million years ago. Early hominids occupied the Aterian (named after the site at Bir el-Ater) about c.200, 000 years ago. Between 50,000 and 30,000 B.C., a culture called the Aterian (after Bir el-Ater) is known across the region.
There is another connection with east Africa, namely the Eburran (= the Kenyan Capsian). It has been compared with the Saharan Capsian (named after el-Cafsi/Capsi, Tunisia) mainly on the basis of blade-like implements. Others dismiss any linkage between the Kenyan Capsian (11,000-9000 B.C.) and the Saharan Capsian (10,000-4000)
This probably means that the Saharan Capsian is more or less coeval with most of John Sutton (Journal of African History = JAH 1974.; Antiquity 1977) was just seen to define as the African Aqualithic (15,000-5000/4000 B. C.).
The concept has been questioned by some but the one-time large bodies of water lying behind it have been proven by aerial and satellite photographs of wadis (= now-dry riverbeds) of vast size. There are also Greek accounts plus Berber legends about Lake Tritonis (probably the much-reduced Shotts of south Tunisia) and Lake Chad as the very much larger Lake Mega-Chad.
As the early rock-art shows both buffaloes plus wild cattle, it is possible their hides were used for skin-boats but on very large bodies of water (esp. the sea) they give problems. The bowl-like coracle tends to spin and even early forms of the more boat-like currach "goes where God wills". The last is also seen in Gesta Caroli Magna (= GCM = History of Charlemagne) by (?) Notker Balbulus (9th c. German) writing Albinus plus Clement bringing Greco/Latin culture back to Post-Roman Gaul not yet become France. James Hornell (Mariner’s Mirror 1937/8) refers to the coracle-skills, as opposed to the lesser ones needed by users of currachs.
Also roughly coinciding with the early rock-art is the dugout-canoe found at Dufuna (Nigeria) found in one corner of the former Lake Mega-Chad. It was radiocarbon-14-dated (= C14-dated) to between 6000-5000 B. C. (= 5520 +/- 100; 5314 +/- 50). However, if skin-boats were ever a part of the tradition of the region, they soon were not and in this same way, it is probable that the dugout-canoe was never a major tradition of this variously called Saharan/Magrebi region.
The most important one is the reed-boat and it is certainly the form that predominates in the early pictures on the rocks of what was gradually turned from the very wet Aqualithic to the super-arid Sahara. This is alongside such as beds of reeds, men fishing from the boats built from the reeds plus pictures hippopotami, crocodiles, etc
Attempts have been made at giving this Saharan rock-art some precise dates based on perceived dominant motifs. Thus Bubaline (based on buffalo/wild cattle), Bovidian (based on domest. cattle) plus Equidian (based on horsed chariots). This is uncertain and so too is that of R.L. Smith (What Happened to the Ancient Libyans: Chasing Sources across the Sahara from Herodotus to Ibn Khaldun in Journal of World History 2003 & online). The Smith scheme runs Bovidian/Tebbu, eastern Equidian/Garamantes/Tuaregs plus western Bovidian/Gaituli/Mauri (= Moors).
Some substance for the tentative scheme of Smith (ib.) is provided by the mapping of Equidian/chariot-trails mapped by messrs. Oliver and Fage (A Short History of Africa 1962). This shows they do divide into two separate eastern plus western routes. A chariot-motif showing the "flying-gallop" could be of c. 1700-1500 B.C. on external comparisons or c.1000-500 on the Garamantian association.
The eastern trails probably connect with traders near Tripoli (Libya) but more certainly with Garama (= Djerma & the Garamantian capital) for one fork and Ghadames for another before merging into one trail that came close to the River Niger. The western one also bifurcates with one trail leading from very near the Atlas foothills and the Wadi Draa/Dra and when both join, they again come to the Niger but further west. The ends of both sets of trails are about equidistant from Timbuctoo (Mali).
A number of defence-systems start before the rise of the Sea-Peoples but whose great increase seemingly coincides with the raids of the Sea-Peoples and/or their allies west of the Sea-Peoples. They include nuraghi (Sardinia), torri (Corsica), ksour (west Magreb), etc. The west African culture building the ksour (plural of kour) is the Dar Tichitt. It seems unlikely the resources for building ksour (= stone-walled villages) on a large scale were just local and it may be appropriate to observe the comment(s) that the distribution of Tichitt-Culture remains closely resemble those of an empire (see below).
It should also be noted that following the repulse of the attempted conquest of Egypt, the Libyan interest seemingly turned west. It was shown that Brass (The similarities & differences between the rise of complex societies in West & East Africa) attached this Libyco/Berber interest in the west to this horizon. It should also be borne in mind that something attracted the unwanted Libyco/Berber attention and with this we may be back with whatever provided the resources for the ksour-building.
The suggested answer was trade-routes that along with caravanserai are only rarely proven archaeologically (esp. early phases) and are known almost entirely from writings. Thus al-Masudi (9th c.) wrote of "Nubians going left (= east) & Kushites right (= west)" and other Arabs reported west African priests from Gao (Mali), Timbuctoo (Mali) served in Pharoahonic Egypt. Herodotus (5th c. B.C. Greek) wrote of Nasamones (of Tunisia/east Libya) crossing the Sahara and Athanasius (3rd /4th cs. A. D. Greek) says Mago of Carthage did so many times. Marinus of Tyre (via Pliny) tells of Septimius Flaccus plus Julius Maternus very late B.C./very early A.D. Pliny (1st c. A.D. Roman) noted the Roman advance across the desert under Cornelius Balbus.
The Nasamones and the Garamantes may be further linked by having Garama as their mutual ancestor-god. They are discussed by such as messrs. Meek (JAH 1960) and Parker (Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute = JRAI 1923) and usually placed amongst the Berbers. Meek (ib.) thought Nasamones translated as "Negroes of Ammon" and also that Ammon/Amon/Amun was a common African part-name.
Messrs. Lhote (in Meek ib.) and Parker (ib.) noted names of the Plinian list, thus Dasibari, Barracum, Balsacum, Alasi, Galla, Tapsacum, etc. Lhote (ib.) felt Songhai Da Isa Bari (= River of the Great God = the River Niger) was Latinised as Dasibar. Parker (ib.) felt Mande Barakunda (= Boat-town) was Lat. Barracum; Mande Lasikunda (= Closed village) as Lat. Alasi; Mande Balsakunda (= Goat-town) as Lat. Balsa; Mande Gala (= Market/Assembly-place) as Lat. Galla: Mande Tabusakunda (= Market under the Tabu [= Fig] Tree) as Lat. Tapsacum.
Parker (ib.) further held that words from the vast west African linguistic family called Mande could render Garamantian in the list made up by Pliny is proof positive that the two were closely linked. The more so as Wa nGara/Wangara (= Children of Garama) is regarded as an obsolete Soudanic (not Sudanic/Sudanese) term for the [Gara]mande/Garamante.
Eastern chariot-trails were seen to coincide with the territories of the Nasamones plus Garamantes. Especially given that the eastern trails appear to begin in the Phazania/Fezzan homeland of the Garamantes, that one fork of these eastern trails clearly starts close to Garama/Jerma (the Garamantian capital); that at Wadi Zarza (Phazania/Fezzan, Libya) is of the quadriga type that Herodotus was seen to directly associate with the Garamantes. It has long been suggested the trails denote trade-routes and further tying this to the Garamantes seems proven by Robin Law (JAH 1967) with an article entitled as "The Garamantes & Trans-Saharan Enterprise in Classical Times". Emphasising this further is that Mande words rendering Garamantian ones so often mean market plus Mohammed Yakin (Almanac of African Peoples & Nations 1999) adding to Wangara as an obsolete term for the Mande by saying that Wangara also meant trader.
Pausanias (2nd c. A.D. Greek) linked these tribes to those described as Atrantes and Atlantes. Smith (ib.), Michael Skupin (The Carthaginian Columbus online), etc, are amongst those wondering why Herodotus separated the Atalantes/Atlantes and the Atarantes/Atrantes. This would indicate that they were not so separate and the Greek atlao (= endurance//bearing/suffering) occurs as part of such as Atlas, Atlantis, etc. In line with this will be that the Atlantes/Atrantes also greatly suffered.
The suffering of the Atlantes/Atrantes was because the desert sun burned their skins plus faces to relate closely to the Greek term of Aithiopes which also occurs as part Leukaithiopes referred to by Ptolemy (2nd c. A.D. Egypto/Greek). Smith (ib.) cites Ptolemy further describing the Melanogetuli and ibn Hawkal (10th c. Arab) the Banu Tanamak plus Sanhaja.
The burnt faces take us directly to the Greek term of Aithiopes (= Burnt-faces) as the most common of the many Greek term for Africans. Leukaithiopes simply translates as White/Lighter-skinned Africans. Gaituli/Getuli means "From the South" according to Smith (ib.) and Clyde Winters (Atlantis in Africa 2006) points to a parallel in the Old-Egyptian terms of nsw/n y swt as meaning the same. Even today, "From the South" in Africa tends to mean what such Afrocentric writers as Winters (ib.), Ivan Van Sertima (They Came before Columbus 1976), etc.
If the term of Leukaithiopes truly carries in it the recognition that some Africans are lighter-skinned than others and from what was said in the previous paragraph, it will be obvious that Melanogetuli merely recognises the reverse of this. The "Negroes of Ammon"/Nasamones and Mande/Mante/Garamante linkages probably belong with discussions about skin-tones. So too does the mix of Blacks plus Berbers seen to have recorded by ibn Hawkal when referring to the Sanhaja of the Sahara as consisting of 22 clans of Banu Tanamak (= Black) plus 19 of Sanhaja (= Tuareg).
In "West Africa & the Sea in Antiquity" (on http://www.africanarts-webpage.com/study.html), it was shown that several groups originating in Anatolia (= Asia Minor = most of modern Turkey) were rather more sea-minded than generally supposed. When it is realised included the Proto-Phoenicians, Carians, etc, this will be no great surprise. Livio Stecchini (online re. Hanno) wanted those noted sailors and friends of the Phoenicians called Carians to recognised in the name of Teichon Karikon (= ? Fort of the Carians) but which more generally is accepted as a Phoenician colony. However, Winters (ib.) shows Carian/Garian was also applied to the Garamantes itself a Greek form of the original west African term (see above) and the Garamantes were a lot closer to Teichon Karikon than any Anatolian group. Moreover, the trans-desert links anciently recognised between the Nasamones/Garamantes on the one hand and the Atlantes/Atrantes is further underlined by the hints made by Law (ib.) about the relationship of the Garamantes and the Gaituli.
Law felt that many of the towns that Pliny says were taken by the Romans from the Garamantes were in fact Gaitulian, so presumably denotes yet another instance of trans-desert relationships being closer than we suppose. Gaituli was noted as likely meaning Black(s), the more so given were another of the probable tribal confederacies already suggested with the Mauri/Moors as surely leading lights in the Gaitulian confederacy. Underlining this is that Mauri plus Moor(s) are both ancient words also translating as black and are but versions of the same word.
Skupin (ib) is among the many holding that the Phoenician cities along the coast of northwest Africa referred to by Hanno of Carthage were mainly in the nature of resettlement of something pre-existent. This would include the colony of Teichon Karikon that once again, must be taken as indicating the African traders seen under the several guises of Mande/Wangara/Garamantes and that they had a presence in the far northwest. By the northwest is, of course, meant what is known variously as Africa Minor, the Magreb/Maghreb, Soudan (again, not Sudan), northwest Africa, etc, but is otherwise north Africa west of Egypt.
Herodotus is a basic source of information in so many different regions. It is of great interest that much of what he has written was formerly regarded as fairy-tales and dismissed out of hand by historians. Of even greater interest is just how much of what was reported by Herodotus has been confirmed by archaeology. He describes the black "birds" referred to by the Greeks as famous oracles at shrines dedicated to Zeus Ammon at Siwa (Egypt) plus Dodonna (Greece). Herodotus tells us that they are actually humans with what to the Greeks was bird/bat-like speech.
If we need to seek humans with bat/bird-like speech, we need look no further than the Saharan natives chased by Garamantians in the above-noted chariots. This seemingly indicates slaving within the same community that has also been historically attested in very much later times and is hardly confined to parts of Africa. Very much to be borne in mind is that these Saharan natives were Aithiopes, therefore, were Black.
These Aethiopes appear to have had parallels in the far west Magreb in what is said by Hanno says about those of the Atlas Mountains and which inhabitants have already been said have already said to have been black on totally different grounds. Most authorities accept that the Aithiopes with bat/bird-like speech mentioned by Herodotus are the Tibu of today. To this is added the apparent lack of personal names of the Tibu/Tibbu noted by Gustav Nachtigal (19th c. German explorer) that takes us straight back to the same feature recorded by Herodotus of the inhabitants of the Atlas Mountains. In short, blacks are linked at opposite ends of the Magreb.
Herodotus very directly says the Tibesti Aithiopes/Tibu were chased by the Garamantes and Hanno of Carthage seemingly says the same of the Atlas Aithiopes/Atlantes. In the case of the Aithiopes/Tibu naming the Tibesti Mountains (sth.Lib./nth Chad), the chasers were the Garamantes in their 4-horse chariots. This cannot be taken as showing the Aithiopes and the Garamantes were separate. Indeed, if the above plus the opinion that the Garamantes are today’s Tibu hold, they cannot be so.
Moreover, Winters (ib.) cites Latin words labelling Garamantes as black and it should be recalled that words from the west African language called Mande/Manding were seen to render Garamantian ones. It has been shown that traits are to be identified desert-wide and that this was recognised anciently. This takes us from one side of the Magreb to the other and beside this belongs another trans-desert characteristic, navigation
The point about about black humans being taken to be black "birds" becomes relevant when we return to Nasamonian Tunisia. The temple/shrine to Ammon equated with Zeus at Siwa (Egypt) was on Nasamonian territory. According to Diodorus Siculus (1st c. B. C. Greek), Alexander the Great wanted to pray at Siwa but he and his group got lost and had to be found and guided by black "birds" across the desert. Having just noted that in this part of Africa, not only were blacks associated with bat/bird-like speech but were also seen as actual birds. Therefore, it follows that the black "birds" leading Alexander’s party across Saharan sands were Nasamonian Blacks.
It may have been the Greeks were a little shy of clearly saying so but it seems Arabs plainly state that Saharan Africans were capable of great feats of navigation. This comes out when Van Sertima (1976) cites the Toffut al-Alabi (12th or 13th c. Arabic) saying "Negroes led the caravanserai across the Sahara because they knew the ways of the birds & stars".
James Hornell (Antiquity 1949) wrote of "Birds as Early Navigational Aids". He shows that Gomez Zurara (15th c. Portugese) confirms use of birds on these lines in the Sahara in the way that they were on the Atlantic. Proving this at sea is Cosmas Indicopleustes (= C. of the Indian Sea/Ocean) writing about seabirds marking coasts of east Africa. These large seabirds appear to be identical with those that Jean Barbot (17th/18th c. French) says marked the coasts of west Africa.
Whether the Tale of Wenamun (11th c. B.C. Egyptian) and the watching of birds being likened to the sails of ships means the same in Egypt remains moot. Such as The Shipwrecked Sailor (c.2000 B.C. Egyptian) do suggest long sea-trips by Egyptians. Other stories other indicate points of contact that needed controlling by a series of forts leaving few remains but known from The Story of Sinuhe, The Prophecy of Neferti, etc.
Nor are there many remains of the bitter war between Troy and Greece known from the long epic poem called The Trojan War by Homer. A find in an excavation proves that Ophir was a real place but the doings of Solomon and the Phoenicians are mainly Biblical reports. The Phoenicians and/or their descendants are said to have founded 300 cities that could not be located by the sources used by Strabo (1st c. B. C. Greek). Benedict Fitzpatrick (The Foundations of Europe 1927) cites such non-Athenians as Hippias, Proclus, Protagoras, etc, founding the Academy at Athens (as Plato); such Greeks as Critolaus, Carneades, Diogenes, etc, bringing Greek thought to Rome (as Plutarch); such Irishmen as Albinus, Clement, etc, reviving Classical thoughts in Post-Roman Gaul/France as "Empires of the Mind" known only from written texts.
Instances of this kind of thing are far too numerous to even attempt to list here and those that are merely serve to illustrate the fact that all too often, quite sober writers are selective as to what is accepted from ancient times. This means there is no valid reason why "The Shipwrecked Sailor", "The Returned [Malian] Captain", etc, do not also fall into this category.The Shipwrecked Sailor and The Returned Captain are shown in "Abubakri II—Who He?" to have many things in common.
Two salient facts emerge here from "The Returned Captain". One is the ability to sail a considerable distance out to sea and to be able to navigate a return to the home port. The other is the reporting of the "undersea stream" that is frequently identified with the combination of the Canarian plus North Equatorial or "conveyor-belt" Currents that could take unwary crews on unwitting trips to the far side of the Atlantic.
Avoidance of these "conveyor-belt" currents by fishermen at some distance from the nearest west African shores would require something of the skills attributed by Homer (dated to anywhere between the 10th & 8th cs. B.C.) to Atlas. The prototype of Atlas is often seen as a native of the Atlas Mountains given to following the worldwide practice of climbing to high places/mountains for communication with the gods. It may also be relevant that Diodorus attributes astrology/astronomy to Atlas. Plato (5th c./4th c. B. C.) shows Atlas as eldest son/successor of Poseidon (founder of the island-empire of Atlantis). Atlas was also described "as a great magician knowing the depths of the sea".
Atlas seen as a native of the Atlas region probably means he relates to the locals. We recall words from Mande/Mante relate to to those of the Garamantes; Gaituli meant "From the South" (= African) but the keyword here is surely atlao (Greek for bearing, suffering & endurance) and Herodotus was noted as citing that the Atlantes/Atrantes also suffered. The reason for their suffering was seen to be that the sun burnt their skins plus faces and that this closely relates to the Greek term of Aithiopes itself the most frequently used of all the ancient Greek words for African Blacks.
This all adds up to Proto-Atlas being African and his being ruler of a vast empire is also a west African norm. Tichitt Culture sites have been touched on and Natalya Marquand (Megaliths & Stone Circles of Morocco & their relationship to those of Mediterranan & Europe online) says Saharan megaliths also display an empire-like spread. The Tichitt/Proto-Wakar/Wakar (= Old Ghana) sequence takes us to the even larger empires of Mali and Songhai. A hallmark of development is orderly succession of rule from generation to generation. This rarely happens in Pre-15th c. Europe but was normal for the great west African empires and is referred to in what was written by al-Umari about the Malian Empire.
It is worth noting that the great west African empires also had several ethnicities under one ruler with all that this could lead to in terms of instability. Yet they usually went through the worldwide norm of imperial cycles of two/two-&-half centuries without splitting asunder. Procopius (6th c. A.D. Greek) shows Africans adding parts of Iberia to their empire(s) millennia before his day and this too falls into a west African pattern. This is demonstrated by the west African basis of two of the four "Arabic"conquests of Iberia
These later west African empires were certainly Islamic but hardly Arabic. The first was by the al-Murabitun (= Men of God/the Monastery) or Almoravids and the second by the al-Muwwaddi (= Men of the Faith) or Almohades. If an analogy for Proto-Atlas as a mystical ascetic searching for a mountain retreat is needed, this is precisely answered by Abdallah ibn Yasin (founder of the al-Murabitun/Almoravids).
Another sequence was given of western Equidian/Gaituli/Mauri. Of them, Gaituli had an Old-Egyptian parallel and it has been said more than once they translate as "From the South" and that generally this means from Sub-Saharan/Black Africa. Mauri occurs in the names of Mauritania (= ancient Morocco), Mauretania (c. 400 miles to the south & spelt slightly differently), Morocco (via the spelling of Marrakesh), Moors, etc. All derive from words meaning Black and this is emphasised when we find west Magreb/Morocco anciently described as Mauretania (= Land of Blacks). Moreover, the Morocccan troops conquering Medieval Iberia plus those used by Franco to achieve success in the Spanish Civil War were still being called Moros (= Blacks).
In west Africa, the Almoravid Empire stretched from Algeirs (Algeria) to Auogadast (Mauritania) and provides another parallel facet of Atlas. It seems Proto-Atlas was an ascetic mystic seeking a high-place retreat no less than did Abdallah ibn Yasin. Ibn Yasin also retreated to the High Atlas, built a murabit (= hermitage/small monastery) and started to attract followers. From them came the nucleus of the western Islamic reformist movement called the al-Murabitun/Almoravids.
Another west African pattern was/will be seen to be star-based way-finding. That pertaining to Saharan Blacks has been touched on and for west Africa see the references in "West Africa…in Ant". Gerald Hawkins (Stonehenge Decoded 1968) plus Sean McGrail (Boats of the World 2002) have attached the respective ancient mathematics and/or astronomy of the Stonehenge-builders plus the Celtic priests called the Druids to maritime way-finding. Priests from Timbuctoo (Mali) crossed the Sahara to officiate at Pharaohonic cremonies in Egypt according to Arabic writers, Those of Islamic date noted at the Sankore or University at Timbuctoo by Chancellor Williams (Destruction of Black Civilisation 2001) had their considerable abilities harnessed to the ocean-going efforts Abubakri II of Mali according to Ivan Van Sertima (They Came before Columbus 1976).
Mainly internal waterways in Senegambia appear marked by Barakunda (in Senegal)/Barokunda (in Gambia) placenames meaning Boat-town(s). Senegal from sunugal (= place of boats) probably has more to do with the sea. Senegal as Djahi in the Wolof language of mainly Senegal with the meaning of Place of Navigation definitely has, as here there is yet another Egyptian parallel. This is because Old-Egyptian also has Djahi translating as Djahi but this time applied to Phoenicia and with whom there is absolutely no difficulty as to a connection with the sea.
The method(s) of way-finding across the sea of sand that is the Sahara was seen to have been compared with those used for way-finding across the sea of salt that is the Atlantic. An early navigational device was that labelled as the wheeled-cross/cross-in-ring plus its variants. They were in use as early as the Bronze Age on Atlantic-facing coasts from that the Bulge of Africa to the British Isles and Nordic Europe.
This more or less maches the 1st millennium B.C. date shown above for such as the Iliad (about war between Troy & Greece) plus the Odyssey (about the post-war exploits of Odysseus/Ulysses) written by the Hellenic Homer. These Homeric tales nicely illustrate how modern historians treat material from such as the Bible plus the Classics and fom outside these categories (see end of next section).
There are many stories from Hellenic Greece to Nordic Europe in the opposite corners of the continent that are as sea-based as those about Atlas. It is true that Atlas is best known as the moronic giant of the type called Titans who led the Titan revolt against the gods of Olympus and was punished by Zeus/Jove by having to hold up the world forever on his shoulders.
However, there is entire body of myth/legend outside this about Atlas. Homer describes him as knowing the depths of the sea and confirming this in west Africa is the knowledge of the undersea stream or combined Canarian/North Equatorial currents by the Returned Captain. The Homeric description of Atlas as a "magician knowing the depths of the sea" seemingly suggests that his navigational skills were such that they were deemed to be magical. To this is added that if the Returned Captain truly did know of the effects of the combined Canarian/North Equatorial or conveyor-belt Currents occurring some distance out to sea on the open Atlantic, he too had considerable skills demonstrated by his getting back to his home port.
An online article discussing Atlas refers to more than one Atlas in differing parts of Europe. There is also the matter of his realm of Atlantis being regarded as being of various locations. Nor is it of much help when Plato (5th/4th c. B.C. Greek) tells us that Atlantis was just beyond the Pillars of Hercules, as their location is also disputed.
Attempts at rectifying the "errors" of ancient Greek geographers by situating Atlantis in the Mediterranean tend to fail on the very real distinction made between what in Latin was Mare Noster (= Our Sea = the Mediterranean) and what the Greeks called Okeanos (= the Ocean = the World-stream = the seas beyond the Pillars/Straits). Moreover, depite mainly modern efforts at wanting not to regard the Pillars of Hercules as marking what are now the Straits of Gibraltar, it is the case that easily the bulk of ancient writers were of the opinion that the Pillars are today’s Straits. In any case, there are other signs of the western links of Atlas that further illustrate where Atlantis was.
The mountains also called Atlas are on the northern edge of Africa. The "Daughters" of Atlas include the Hesperides (= Western Isles), Atlantides (= Atlantic Isles), Atlantis (= Daughter of A.), etc. This very surely indicates where the Atlas family (inc. Atlantis) were regarded as being located, namely to the west of the Pillars/Straits in the ocean sharing its name with Atlas, Atlantes, Atlantis, Atlantides, etc.
Yet another set of "Daughters" are the Pleaides best known as a star-system. As they appear on the horizon, they are taken to indicate the start of the ploughing season for farmers, the start of the sailing season for sailors, the start of the fishing season for fishermen, etc. Pleaides coming from Greek pleien (= Sailing-stars) is to be put alongside the consistently western linkage given to the Atlas "family" seen to include the Pleaides. Underlining all this, is the actual location of Mount Atlas.
The several traits seen right across north Africa from Egypt to Morocco/Mauritania are added to by forms of boat/ship. There is a type of reed-boat that is referred to by Eratosthenes (3rd c. Egypto/Greek) as ocean-going in the Indian Ocean. He also informs us that this was the standard Nile-River type and it is usually as having barely changed from the days of the Egypt-to-Punt trade. It probably attaches to what Winters (The Proto Sahara online; The Proto Saharan Religion online) describes as a desert-wide half-man/half-fish deity called Maa. There is also the resemblance that many writers compare with that of the earliest images of the Ark of the Covenant. In reduced size, it is likely to be represented by west Magrebi reed-boats called almady itself later applied to almadias (= canoes) by the Portuguese. It is also the form that went across the Atlantic on "The Ra Voyages" with Thor Heyerdahl (1971).
West Africans on the Atlantic Ocean are further demonstrated by the term of Mare Ethiopium. This derives from those perceived as the dominant users of a particular body of sea by whoever was doing the recording of the name. Its significance comes to the fore when it is realised that till about 1700, it was a synonym for the Atlantic. After about c. 1700, it increasingly stopped appearing in records. Even more to the point is that it means Ocean/Sea of the Blacks or Negroes.
Ethiopium was seen to come from the Greek Aithiopes/Aethiopes for all Africans and it is known that it is not the only team used in this way. That of the Persians and Arabs for east Africans was Zanj and was but one of many Persio/Arab terms for Black Africans. It also occurs in works of Piri Reis (15th/16th c. Turk). The maps of Piri Reis usually figure in discussions about movement on the Atlantic but he also touches on the Indian Ocean that he calls the Bahr-e-Zanj/Zanj-e-Bahr (= Ocean/Sea of the Negroes) according to sources cited in both "East Africa & the Sea in Antiquity" and "Abubakri II—Who He?". Zanj-e-Bahr was used of east Africa from Sudan to Mozambique till the 1920s and is still with us in the name of Zanzibar according to a website dealing with the history of the island of Zanzibar.
Underlying this, are the Indian (?) koland plus Chinese k’un-l’un that may possibly mean Africans. In turn, they form part of such words as kolandophunta and kunlun-po (= ships of the Blacks) that indicate sea-going vessels on the Indian Ocean. Way-finding on the Indian Ocean for such non-powered craft was very much based on utilisation of the monsoon-system. This differs from what happened on the Atlantic but if messrs. Ben-Jochanan (Black Man of the Nile 1989) and Chami (The Unity of African Ancient History 2006) are confirmed, the methods on the two oceans may not be so separate after all.
Chami (ib.) on the Phoenicians plus Ben-Jochanan on the Portuguese point to both need African navigators. Chami (ib.) felt that rounding Cape Agulhas (the southern tip of Africa) happened rather more frequently than generally imagined. Cabo Agulhas means Cape of Eagles in Portuguese but perhaps more relevant birds are the large seabirds seen to attest the east and west coasts of Africa. Birds were also used as navigational aids in pre-instrumental days by the Africans seen to have crossed the hundreds of miles of the sand-sea called the Sahara using methods also said to have been identical to those used to cross the hundreds of miles of the salt-sea called the Atlantic
AFRICANS IN ANCIENT EUROPE
What have been variously described as Out-of-Africa/Garden-of-Eden/African Eve theories probably began affecting Europe in the Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age), Middle Stone Age (= Middle Stone Age), Neolithic (= New Stone Age) then Metals (i.e. Copper/Bronze/Iron) Ages. Some of the earliest cultural stages were recognised by French archaeologists as the Abbevillian followed by the Acheulian. They are from French type-sites and these labels have stuck.
So much so have they stuck, that even when Bednarik (ib) plus colleagues found sites as far away as Indonesia, the designation of Acheulian was given. From them came dates too early for carbon-14 dates (C14-dates), so other methods had to be used. They indicate an early hominid form that has become known as Homo floriensis (from being found on the island of Flores) had developed the ability to cross short stretches of sea. This was deduced from similar sets of tools on islands a little distance from each other. Even allowing that sea-levels differ now from those of several hundred thousands of years ago and no actual boats were found, this assumption was made and seems supported by finds of cordage that were the remains of presumed fishing-nets.
More comparisons of tools separated by short stretches of sea were those of Abbevillian type noted by Sean McGrail (Mariner’s Mirror = MM 1991) in north Magreb/ Morocco opposite south Iberia/Spain. Bednarik placed great emphasis on the intellectual development of early hominids arising from the going to sea and having seen that Abbevillian precedes Aechulian, it may have significance that Morocco-to-Iberia seemingly antedates that just seen in part of Indonesia. Indeed, Africa-to-Iberia may even be not just earlier but the earliest datable such sea-trips, as from Bednarik, we learn that Homo florensis seems to be an offshoot of Homo sapiens (= Thinking man = Modern man). In this respect, it may worth noting the Stillbay sites at the opposite end of Africa. They are not discussed here but are mentioned in East Africa & the Sea in Antiquity, as they are just the IOR side of Cape Agulhas and involve fishing and possible use of some kind of craft.
Of roughly the same dates as the Stillbay Culture would be Perfuga (Sardinia) at c. 300,000 B.C. with more sea-going occurring on Sardinia held to be shown by Corbeddu at c. 20,000 B.C. This may also have involved the Riviera (sth. France) and/or Liguria (= n/east Italy). As to via Sardinia and/or the Riviera to Liguria, in Liguria are the Grimaldi Caves. Here the population had skulls that are variously described as Australoid/Africaoid/Negroid or even African (? dare we use the term) plus more of the cordage that as seen, may indicate fishing-nets.
What should not be overlooked here is the long-held recognition that as Anatolia acts on the Balkans (= s/east Europe) so the Magreb (= nth. Africa west of Egypt) acts on Iberia and not for nothing is there the phrase "That Africa ends at the Pyrenees" (separating Iberia/Spain from France). This is frequently attributed to Napoleon but is probably considerably older than Bonaparte. Nor should it be forgotten what is implied by the Grimaldi finds, that no matter what is said about light-skinned Berbers in the Magreb/Sahara, there were blacks in the Magreb at that date. This is confirmed by the content of some of the Saharan rock-art, the first phases of which may be of this date.
Some of the oldest African Mesolithic material is that called Capsian. The earliest finds that have labelled Capsian are from Kenya but the type-site is at el-Gafsi/el-Capsi (Tunisia). Many regard it as likely there is no connection but if there is, it will be obvious the chronological priority is with east Africa and the Kenyan material. There is some reason to connect the Capsian of Magreb and Iberia. This would be reinforced by what is sometimes seen as a coastal form of the Magrebi Capsian called either the Oranian (after Oran, Algeria) or the Maurusian (after Maurusia = an ancient name for Morocco). It became the IberoMaurusian, in short, the Iberian form of the Maurusian.
Various studies of other ancient sea-borne Africans, especially of trade exist. A pioneering attempt was The Geography of Herodotus but pertaining especially to the Periplus of "Necho" by J.T. Wheeler (1854). Then there are the translations of PME by messrs Huntingford (1980) and Casson (1989) that differ radically on some details, particularly about the African version of Ausan/Awsan that may or may not be tied to Azania. Both refer to Punt and Azania as trade-networks in east Africa. The many crop-types apparently originating in west Africa that led on to the earliest west African urban centres had inland plus coastal markets handling large amounts of these crops. Those on the west coast presumably offer parallels for those of the "Punt" and "Azania" networks of east Africa and again mean that Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Islam, Colonial Europeans, need to be harked to for the rise of the earliest west African urbanism. These coastal depots were the basis for what has been called here the WAAC.
Part of this lies in the period called the Chalcolithic (= Copper/Stone Age), as shown by messrs Harrison & Gilman (in Atlantic Eur. & the Mediterranean ed. V. Markotic 1977). They demonstrate trading between that part of west Africa that is west Magreb/Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula. Articles bearing titles like "Looking for a Lost City" and "Looking for the Lost City of Tartessos" are by Stephen Arts. They again indicate trade between west Africa and Iberia and take this into what for Iberia would be the Late Bronze Age (= LBA)/Early Iron Age (= EIA). Arts connected that of west Africa with that of Tartessos as the Biblical Tarshish plus the Israel of Solomon. In doing so, he is identifying the Tartessos (an ancient kingdom in the s/west of Ib.) of Classical writers with the Tarshish of Biblical writers. He also identifies Tartessos/Tarshish with Atlantis.
Of German attempts at identifying where Atlantis was, that of Frobenius (as above) put it in Yorubaland (Nigeria), that of Borchardt (as Stecchini ib.) put it in Algeria/Tunisia and that of Schulten (as Arts ib.) put it in west Iberia. The views of Schulten plus Arts would at one bold attempt, settle once and for all, problems of where Tarshish and Atlantis were. As said above, if we have to believe in Atlantis, it might as well be regarded as any one of these. They are after all, close to where Plato placed it.
African conquests in Europe have been claimed from at least the time of Taharquo of Kush ruling also as Pharoah of Egypt but more on this in "East Af. …" . The relevance of this is that such diverse and ancient writers as Josephus (1st c. A.D. Jew), Strabo (1st. c. B. C. Greek), Procopius (6th c. Greek), al-Makary (10th c. A.D. Arab), etc, trace African conquests in Europe south of the Pyrenees (= the Iberian Peninsula). Given just how frequently matters earlier are repeated at a later date in west Africa, it must have great interest that of the four Islamic (note not "Arabic") dynasties that combined Morocco with Iberia, at least two appear to have been west African and black.
Further confirmation of this comes with a map from the writings of Rufus Avienus (ib.) reconstructed by Antonio Arribas. He shows Africans in "Libyphoenician" form in just the African-facing areas that the quoted ancient writers say were the African-ruled parts of south Iberia. This particularly means Mons Silurus (= Mountain or Mountains of Silura). From the Maurusian/IberoMaurusian onwards, what has been variously called Gaetulia/Maurusia/Mauritania by Classical writers and Goethluigne by Celtic writers (cited by Roderick O’Flaherty [17th c. Irish]) had close links with Andalusia. Iberia was further connected with the Irish Clann Mil (= Milesians = Sons of Mil = ProtoGaels) by O’Reilly (ib).
Some measure of can be taken of African involvement in early Iberian commerce. The African Maa was seen in Iberian form. The Iberian Maa was killed at Gadir (= Gades in Latin = Cadiz in Spanish) by Melkarth (the chief deity of the Phoenicians settled at Gadir. Melkart was also important as the chief god of commerce for these Gaditanian Phoenicians. In like manner, the tunny-fishing seen to have probably begun as a maritime aspect of the African Aqualithic, also came into Gaditanian hands. This shows the political and/or commercial realities and probably the context of what messrs. Cary and Warmington (The Ancient Explorers 1963) described as an ostentatious welcome. That welcome was by King Arganthonios of Tartessos (= s/west Iberia). Arganthonios showered gifts on Kolaios/Colaeus (? 7th c. B. C. Greek) according to Herodotus.
In short, exit one set of rivals for the Phoenicians in the form of Africans and enter another in the form of the newly arrived Greeks. However, the Greeks as the rivals of the Phoenicians from either Carthage or Gadir did not survive long, as the Phoenicians and/or Carthaginians froze them out of most of M/M/M-facing east Iberia and almost all of Atlantic-facing west Iberia.
Africa as a place that exported metals technology may not be as difficult as might appear at first sight. Felix Chami (The Unity of African Ancient History 2006) points to parts of east Africa producing ironwork qualifying as steel because it was so high-gade and of Indian interest showing that some of it came back in the form of manufactured goods. That this continued for another 1000/1200 years is shown by Idrissi (12th c. Arab) commenting on almost the same thing plus that the east African metal seems to have underlain what was known as Uccu/Wootz steel in India plus Damascene steel in Syria.
A recent study of the west African Iron Age (= WAIA) is by Stanley Alpern (History in Africa 2005). Sources cited in West Africa & the Sea in Antiquity showed dates tied to the WAIA apparently north-going from Gabon. Alpern (ib.) cites Nicole Lambert (ib.) tying that of Mauretania and of Iberia that if too early on Lambert’s notes can be reversed to further show west African influence on Iberia. This would be reinforced by the Tylecote (West African Journal of Archaeology 1975) comparison of furnaces in west Africa (esp. Nigeria) and Nordic Europe (esp. Ger.).
As the dugout-canoe of west Africa plus skin-boats of currach-type in Celtic-west Europe are very simple types having a riverine origin, there should be a logical internal sequence owing little to outside influences. Yet despite this, expert opinions regard both forms as highly international. Currachs are recorded at opposite ends of the Irish Sea as trading British tin from Cornwall to foreign ships at one end and as plying between Ulster (nth. Ireland.) to Scotland (nth. Britain.) at the northern end (see Abubakri II—Who He?). Commerce based on the dugout-canoe was seen to be proven as the basis of commerce the length of the Atlantic coasts of Meso-America, of the Atlantic coast of Africa and Guinea-to-Iberia seems to be the same.
Arribas shows not only the aforementioned map but also mentions that metals-rich areas of Iberia inland from Cordoba were linked to the River Guadalquivir and the Atlantic Ocean by dugout-canoe. It will also be recalled the dugout-canoe is suggested to have led to massive physiques, as recorded by Cadamosto (see West Africa & the Sea in Antiquity online at http://www.africanarts-webpage.com/study.html). Also to be borne in mind are tales of Africans as giant soldiers in Iberia according to messrs Brunson and Rashidi (in Golden Age of the Moor ed. Ivan Van Sertima 1992).
The theme of giants is widespread in Africa. Umlindi of South Africa, the Korobo of Kenya, statues plus Osiris in Egypt, the Sao of Chad, the Mijin-masa of Nigeria, Atlas of Morocco, etc, are good instances of this. The Sao plus the Mijin-masa were deemed to be capable of bringing slain elephants home, other African giants were seen as capable of bearing stones of many tons (including those of Stonehenge) and indeed, Atlas carried the world on his shoulders.
This may be what lies behind the body-length face-masks so important for African shamans/witch-doctors; body-length statue-menhirs in Senegal that translated into human-height terms would mean 15/20 feet; the giant heads of captives from many lands carved in relief at Tanis (Egypt); the monumental statuary of Pharaonic Egypt, Osiris as the Giant Black, etc. More African "giants" are those recorded are the Moors recorded as synonyms for Saracens in Iberia by Brunson & Rashidi (ib.).
More body-length face-masks belonging to what elsewhere has been called the "Great Heads" tradition are those actually called Cabezuelos (= Big-heads) belonging with the Gigantes (= Giants) in Iberian parades. Another giant in Iberia was king Geryon. He was killed by Hercules and his head placed under the first Pharos (= lighthouse) built at Brigantion (near Corunna, in Galicia in northwest Iberia/Spain). This is a point of the Atlantic-west coast of Iberia/France facing the Bay of Biscay that was/is so dangerous for ships that 18th c. Flemish, Dutch and British Governments offered to defray the Spanish coasts of maintaining a lighthouse there. Biscay or Vizcaya marks Basque lands and folklore here refers to giants as Mauriaks (= Africans or Mauri/Moors) or Gentiliaks (= Gentiles in the sense of Pre-Christian outsiders).
What was Armorica/is now Brittany in northwestern parts of Gaul (now mainly France& Belgium) was where a giant was killed by Arthur. It may be significant that Arthur’s victim was called the "Spanish" Giant by Geoffrey of Monmouth (a 12th c. British writer) and that that he was slain by aso-called "king" from Britain but who was really a successful warlord. Armorica/Brittany abounds in megaliths (from Greek megas = large & lithos = stone, hence megalith = large-stoned) in the form of Passage-graves, Gallery-graves, menhirs (= standing-stones), stone-rows, etc. The largest known of ancient menhirs may have been Le Grande-Menhir. It has prompted comparison with the Pharos at Brigantion/Corunna. Megaliths in general have long been associated with astronomy and this in turn connects with maritime navigation.
Beler/Boler was a British giant made famous in the poem called Lycidas by John Milton (17th c. Eng.). Belerion/Bolerion was his home. Belerion can mean all southwest Britain/England; the part of southwest Britain that is Cornwall; the part of Cornwall that is Penwith; the part of Penwith that is Land’s End. Finisterre (= Land’s End) at the tip of the Galician Peninsula; Finisterre (= Land’s End) at the tip of the Breton Peninsula join with the Land’s End at the tip of the Cornish Peninsula. Charles Thomas (National Trust Studies 1989) demonstrates that another name for Land’s End is Vestaeum and that this implies signal-beacons warning ships from straying too near dangerous rocks. Yet more names include Belerion (= in Greek), Belerium (in Latin); Pen-van-lan (in the P-Celtic ancestor of British, Breton, Cornish & Welsh).
That west Africa knew of "going home" (= into the sea/? on to the sea) takes us to the Irish giants called the Fomoire and their king named Balar. The more so given that Fomoire may translate as "From the Sea" and are described as Fomoire Afraicc (= Fomoire from Africa). Net/Neit was an Iberian war-god and grandfather of Balar. After Balar was killed, his massive head with its single eye that needed four ordinary mortals to open it was buried at Carn Ui Neit (= Cairn of the Grandson of Neit). Carn Ui Neit is now called Mizen Head and is at the tip of the peninsular region of Kerry/west Cork or Bantry-to-Shannon parts of west Munster or the deep southwest of Ireland. Iberia (= Spain and Portugal) was Mag Mell (= Plain of Death) or Mag Mor (= Great Plain) and it was ruled by another Fomoire king named Tethba.
The "Cult of the Severed Head" is shown across Celtic/Celtic-speaking Europe by Anne Ross (Pagan Celtic Britain 1968; The Everyday Life of the Celts 1970). However, those of Atlantic coasts may ultimately relate but is otherwise a separate phenomenon. At opposite ends of Africa, the notion of humans turned into stone is clearly proven. Being giants, their heads would be related to the "Great Heads" traditions. The links of the peninsular regions of Galicia, Brittany, Cornwall plus Bantry/Shannon are particularly noticeable here too. Thus messrs McClelland (Chambers Ency. 1973) and Mitchell (The Irish Landscape 1976) respectively wrote of Galicia as "a wetter Brittany" and of the shared geomorphology, archaeology, history plus land-use uniting Brittany, Cornwall and Bantry/Shannon.
Also all four areas produce copper and the first three tin as well. All appear to have had ancient landmarks visible from the sea to warn of dangerous waters; three (Galicia, Brittany &? Bantry/Shannon) had figures with their heads cut off; two (Galicia &? Bantry/Shannon) involved the burial of the head; Alexei Kondratiev (Lugus: The Many-Gifted Lord online) shows just closely are comparable are the tales about Lugh (= the Irish form of Lugus & grandson plus slayer of Balar the Fomoir) and Jack the Tinkard in Cornwall and goes on to describe the Cornish giants as Fomoire but does not say anything about beheaded Cornish giants.
There are also good literary plus archaeological links between Galicia and Bantry/Shannon but they lie outside my brief. However, to the point is Dathi O-hOgain (Myth, Legend & Romance: An Ency. of the Irish Folk Tradition 1990) saying the southern (= Ibero/Atlantic) traditions given to this by Diodorus Siculus (1st c. B. C. Greek) are much older than the northern (= Nordic/Scandinavian) given in the Irish text that is the first Cath Magh Tuiredh (= Battle of MoyturaMoytirra = 1st Moytura). Thomas O’Rahilly (Early Irish History & Mythology 1946) was of the opinion that the so-called 2nd Moytura was in the older of the two versions of Moytura. This is in line with what is said by Diodorus plus that 2nd Moytura is that having most to with the Ibero/southern link and the Fomoire there. There is also O-hOgain (ib.) pointing to Beler/Balar-names marking the most south-westerly points of Britain and Ireland at Land’s End and Mizen Head respectively.
Africans were seen as being capable of hefting great weights (elephants, massive stones, the world, etc.) and legend has it that large stones were brought from Africa to Ireland. Geoffrey says they were set up at "Killarus" (=? The Curragh, Kildare, Ire.) and at Arthur’s behest, they were taken from Killarus/Killare and set up as the Giant’s Dance on Salisbury Plain (Wilts., Eng.) but is now called Stonehenge. Nor is this the only British stone ring that in British tradition this kind of linkage attaches to. There were also the Africans wearing feathered cloaks building Callanish on the Scottish island in the Hebridean group called Lewis. Callanish is sometimes called the Scottish Stonehenge.
Another Africo/Black linkage comes with Crom Dubh (= Black Crom). His name occurs in that of the largest stone circle in Ireland at Rannadh Crom (= Wheel/Ring of Crom, nr. Lough Derg, Limerick) and Crom Cruach (=? The Circle/Ring on the Mound =? Killycluggin Circle, Cavan). To the last came "the King, Queen & People of Ire". A further sign of the status of Crom is the need by the Early Church to invoke the name of Patrick in the destruction of Crom Cruach. His being the god of the people of Ireland resembles An Dagda (the principal god of Irish Druidism) as the god of all the tribes of Ireland. The Wheel/Ring attribute brings him into line with Mogh Ruith (= Slave/Devotee of the Wheel & chief god of Druidism in sth. Ire. [= Munster]) and both had one eye. Here we further note Crom/Mogh as Black and as wearing feathered cloaks.
Nor is an African connection confined to stone rings that it should be said antedate the Druids by 2500/2000 years. Messrs Mac Ritchie (Britons Ancient & Modern 1884 & 1991) and Spence (The Mysteries of Britain 1928 & 1995; The Origins & Hist. of Druidism 1949; Druids: Their Origins 1995) both look for African-type rites in Britain. This included Ashanti-like blood-rites; the sources of Morris plus wedding dances; first Egyptian corn with a sickle like Druids cutting mistletoe with a sickle, etc.
West Africa was seen to have sent priests to participate in the Egyptian Mystery System (= EMS) of the Pharaohs according to Arabic writers. The Pharaohonic cutting of the first Egyptian corn with a sickle was compared by Lewis Spence (ib.) with the cutting of the sacred mistletoe by the Chief Druid using a golden sickle but sought an origin in an African Cult of the Dead for what in Celtic Europe was called Druidism. Julius Pokorny (Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute 1908) looked for the sources of Druidism in what others (cited by Mac Ritchie ib.) have called An Dubh Eirionach (= Black Irish).
Classical writers do not list Iberia plus Ireland as places where existed but Celtic literature mainly in the form of that in Irish comes to our rescue. After that of Greek plus Latin, Old-Irish literature is the oldest in Europe and is the oldest vernacular corpus in western Europe and it refers to Druids time and time again. Joyce Salisbury (Iberian Popular Religion 1985) refers to Iberian holy-men that sound very Druid-like and Anne Ross (The Druids 1995 but not in 2004) put the southern boundary of Continental Druidism on a line across Iberia based on the River Tagus. This can be expected to have been strongest in the most Celtic parts of Iberia, notably among the Lusitani (naming Lusitania = Portugal), Gallaeci/Callaeci (naming Galicia), Astures (naming Asturia), etc. The Old-Irish text that is Lebor Gabala (= LG = Book of Invasions) tells of several Iberian groups coming to Ireland complete with Druids.
Inasmuch that Africa is still thought by many to be the "savage"continent, it might equally be held to be appropriate that Africa/Africans may have had a hand in what emerged as what is felt by some to be the savage religion of Druidism. "Savage" Africa is dealt with in these pages plus others far more able than to do so myself. As to "savage" Druids, this was alleged (esp. relating to divination) in antiquity but there were also a considerable number of contrary Classical opinions.
These contrary Greco/Roman or Classical historians compared such intellectuals as the Brahmins of India, Magi of Persia, EMS-priests of Egypt, Pythagoreans of southeast Europe with the Druids of west Europe. Druids taught the young of Celtic-west Europe and Ellis (ib.) notes this was also the case in Britain when showing a British-derived word came into its Welsh descendant as athronieth (= teacher). That this also applies to the Druids of the Irish Celts seems proven by Irish Druids as instructor/teachers in Irish tale-cycles of both Leinster (from Lagin & ster [= province]) and Ulster versions.
The feathered cloaks that are seen to be important to the African shamans/witch-doctors/medicine-men have also been shown to connect with supposed builders of British stone rings (esp. the circles at Stonehenge & Callanish) according to the oldest known British tradition. Mogh Ruith was seen as the principal god of Druidism in the part of Ireland that is otherwise the ancient kingdom/province of Munster. Anne Ross (Everyday Life of the Celts 1970) shows him wearing either a feathered cloak or a bull-hide during divination. The feathered cloaks have been noted several times on the island of Lewis here but Thomas O’Rahilly (Early Irish Hist. & Mythology 1946) shows that bull-hides were also known on Lewis. This was again during divination.
Claimed African influences on European religion appear to have left little for archaeologists to have and to hold and lovingly classify into neat and tidy categories. This then is placed with what above with what were seen to have been called "Empires of the Mind" again usually leaving little in the way of archaeology.
Very clearly, this kind of thing leaves at most a literary path that will often be considered as not precise enough. Even more so when based on folk-life/folklore not buttressed by archaeology and/or various forms of genetic evidence, so will be dismissed accordingly. This of itself tends to overlook the imperfections of both archaeological and genetic research that all too often has subjectivity paraded as objectivity. Just where this leaves tracing such as the pet-names of livestock from Erythraic tongues of east Africa to those of Celtic Europe is anyone’s guess but this was done to track the movement of their owners by the writers followed in East Africa & the Sea in Antiquity
It seems "tropically-adapted" humans were the first ones in the Iberian Peninsula. Sean McGrail (The International Journal of Nautical Archaeological = IJNA 1991) points to "Abbevillian" artefacts on both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar. This suggests Africans were capable of crossing narrow seas either earlier or at dates akin to those for somewhat further east (see "East Africa & the Sea in Antiquity). The Capsian Culture of (? Kenya) and the Magreb had Oranian plus Maurusian/Mauritanian offshoots.
The Capsian and the Maurusian appear to be the parents of the Iberian Capsian and the Ibero-Maurusian respectively. D’arbois de Jubainville (19th/20th c. French linguist) held the (?) Ethiopian Atrantes/Atlantes were ancestral to the Basques. Classical and Arabic authors wrote of Africans under Kushite leadership reach (see East Africa & the Sea in Antiquity). Andrew Fear (Rome & Baetica 1996) cites Strabo (1st c. B.C. Greek), Appian (1st/2nd c. A. D. Greek), etc, as saying several thousand Africans were settled in Iberia during the time of Carthaginian domination of south Iberia.
From the extensive list of comparisons that was a prime factor in making some previous sections as long as they are, there emerged what lies behind the Arbuthnot/Faught article of "Iberia not Siberia" (online). This especially means the first arrivals in the Americas. The various main theories about this can be summed up as the Beringia Land-bridge/Crossing (from Siberia-to-Alaska & then overland to east & south); Pacific Crossing (straight from Australia-to-west coast Americas); Pacific Coast (arrival in west Americas & moves via refugia [= ice-free pockets in the Holocene ice]); Middle Atlantic Crossing (see next section); North Atlantic Crossing (Holocene ice-floes used as refugia to cross the north Atlantic), etc.
It is the North Atlantic Crossing(s) that particularly lies behind the surely telling title of "Iberia not Siberia" for at least some of the first arrivals in North America. This gives an interesting context for long sea-trips out of ancient Iberia for both considerable date and length. This also makes it much easier to accept earlier Iberian voyages in other directions that includes those from the most Africanised parts of Iberia, the more so given that this is where we find Mons Silurus (= Mountain[s] of Silura) was located.
Silura/Silurus is also one of the versions of the British place-name now standardised as Scilly (with an intrusive 18th c. "c"). Silura/Scilly was known as an island till the 4th c. A. D. but some time afterwards, sea-floods turned it into what are now known as the Isles of Scilly. As islands off Cornwall they appear to have been ruled by a sub-clan/sept of the Dumnoni ruling Cornwall/Devon (= s/west Brit./Eng.) in the way that the Arans off west Munster were ruled by a sept of the Eoganachta ruling Munster (= one of the four ancient kingdoms/provinces of Ireland).
The root of Dumnoni incorporates dubh already seen to mean black/very dark so matches what has been written of the Cornish many times. Silura may also apply to one the small islands off the Welsh coast but easily the famous example in Wales has to be Silures (centred mainly on Gwent in s/east Wales). Here we come to something of a contrast of the genetic and the written records. Tacitus (1st c. A. D. Roman) records a tribe of British Celts in what is now Scotland as the Caledoni as Germanic and another tribe of British Celts in what is now Wales as the Silures as Iberian.
If the Caledoni as Germanic stands, there seems no reason to doubt the Silures were Iberic. There is at least some blood-group evidence to support this. Moreover, the Tacitean description of the Silures as very dark, curly-haired and Iberian-looking might almost take us to that given by Pliny (1st c. A.D. Roman) of more British Celts but this time of the north of what is now England as "Ethiopian" (one of the Greco/Roman words for Africans) and/or Mauros/Maurus (one of the many Greco/Roman words meaning black, as seen in Mauri/Moors too).
At the opposite end of Wales from the Silures is north Wales. Here legend has it that Cardigan Bay results from a flood caused by a lock-keeper getting drunk and neglecting his duties. That lock-keeper was called Sethennin and this has been related to the names of Setantae and Setanta (= the pre-warrior-name Cu Chulann & the major hero of the Irish story called the Tain bo Cualgne). The Setantae were a tribe of British Celts placed by Ptolemy (2nd c. A.D. Roman) in what is now northwest England. The name relates to Setanta (the pre-warrior name of Cu Chulann & seen as the major hero of the main story in the tales named after Ulster [= the northernmost ancient Irish kingdom]). It may be relevant to note that Setanta/Cu Chulann was also "the small dark man"
Just a little north of the Setantae into what is now southwest Scotland was where Ptolemy put the British Celts called the Damnoni. This is but a slight difference of spelling from Dumnoni placed by Ptolemy in Cornwall/Devon and the Domnann placed by the Tain bo Cualgne (= Cattle-raid of Cooley = the Tain) in Leinster (the easternmost of the ancient Irish kingdoms). The basic root of what lies behind the names of the Dumnoni/Damnoni/Domnann was seen to be dubh. This was also seen to mean black or very dark and this relates to yet more "small dark men" populating the Gaelic legends of west Scotland garbled as the Poems of Ossian by James MacPherson (18th/19th c. Scot.) and more authentically by John Campbell in Tales of the West Highlands (1865).
It should be said the builders of the Scottish stone circle at Callanish can be seen as small Africans, giant Africans or a possible mix of both. The figure seen as the main warrior of the Irish tale-cycle of the Ulster type under the name of Cu Chullan was also described as small and very dark. Otherwise, the Dubh Eirionach (= Black Irish) are mentioned by messrs Armstrong and Huxley (as the Alis ib.). Huxley put them mainly west of the River Shannon in west Munster.
By now it will be obvious there is ample testimony for Africo/Iberian sea-routes to west France and/or the British Isles. For that part of those islands that is Ireland, such as the writings of messrs. Raftery (The Iron Age in the Irish Sea Province ed. Charles Thomas 1972) plus the several papers by Sean O’Nuallain indicate the strong Iberian links of Munster plus Connacht (the westernmost kingdom of Ire.). This lies with the everyday things and accords with the accounts of Old-Irish literature showing the Iberian ancestry of the Milesians/Sons of Mil/Clann Milid (= the Proto-Gaels/Goidels of Ire.).
In the light of Raftery showing both the separate connections of Iberia and Cornwall and of Cornwall and west Munster, it is surely appropriate to allude to comments of Dathi O-hOgain (Myth, Legend & Romance: An Encycopedia of the Irish Folklore Tradition 1990). He notes that Land’s End plus Mizen Head as the most south-westerly points of Britain and Ireland respectively are marked by the Celtic Beler/Balar-names that very plainly head us back to the Atlantic coasts of west Africa and Iberia.